About

Editorial Policies


Focus and Scope

African Invertebrates is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal that focuses primarily on the taxonomy, systematics, biogeography, and palaeontology of Afrotropical invertebrates, whether terrestrial, freshwater or marine. Aspects concerning biology, ecology, and conservation may also be considered where these relate to the primary focus areas. Papers dealing solely with biology, ecology, physiology, pests and pest control should be submitted elsewhere. 


Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.


Dryad Repository Submissions

This journal is integrated with the Dryad Digital Repository to make data publication simple and easy for authors. There is a $120 Data Publishing Charge for Dryad submissions, payable via the Dryad website.  For more information, please see their FAQ.


Printed Versions and Reprints

African Invertebrates is published in identical print (high-resolution, full-color) and online (PDF) versions.

Printed versions of this journal may be ordered in parts or subscribed (see the Table below).

To subscribe please use the Subscription Form (download as PDF file), or contact us by e-mail, letter, or fax. Please, include the full delivery address, if different from that of your registration, and indicate the payment method. Please, contact us if you need a quotation or proforma invoice.

Separate issues or any number of reprints (high-resolution, full-color) may be ordered using the online Order Reprint(s) form available under each issue or article on the journal's website.

For more information you may also download the Order Information and Library Recommendation Form (PDF, 160K).

Prices are given in EURO and are exclusive of postage and handling. Payment in USD is also possible according to the exchange rate on the day of payment. IMPORTANT: Our prices do not include VAT. Orders from countries outside the European (EU) or from VAT-registered EU customers will be processed VAT-free. VAT (20%) will be added ONLY to NOT VAT-registered customers based in the European Union.


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Copyright Notice

License and Copyright Agreement

In submitting the manuscript to any of Pensoft’s journals, the authors certify that:

  • They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
  • The work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
  • They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
  • They agree to the following license and copyright agreement:

Copyright

  • Copyright on any article is retained by the author(s). Regarding copyright transfers please see below.
  • Authors grant Pensoft Publishers a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
  • Authors grant Pensoft Publishers commercial rights to produce hardcopy volumes of the journal for sale to libraries and individuals.
  • Authors grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its original authors and citation details are identified.
  • The article and any associated published material is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)

Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)

Anyone is free:

to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work

to Remix — to adapt the work

Under the following conditions:

Attribution. The original authors must be given credit.

  • For any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.
  • Any of these conditions can be waived if the copyright holders give permission.
  • Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author's moral rights.

The full legal code of this license.

Copyright Transfers

Any usage rights are regulated through the Creative Commons License. As Pensoft Publishers is using the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), anyone (the author, his/her institution/company, the publisher, as well as the public) is free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work as long as the original author is credited (see above). Therefore, specific usage rights cannot be reserved by the author or his/her institution/company, and the publisher cannot include a statement "all rights reserved" in any published paper.

This page was adapted from its equivalent at Copernicus Publications.

Website design and publishing framework: Copyright © 2011 Pensoft Publishers.


COPE Membership

This journal endorses the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) guidelines and will pursue cases of suspected research and publication misconduct (e.g. falsification, unethical experimentation, plagiarism, inappropriate image manipulation, redundant publication). For further information about COPE please see the website for COPE at http://www.publicationethics.org and journal's Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement.


Author Guidelines


Main Text

Title: The title should be in a sentence case (only scientific, geographic or person names should be with a first capital letter, i.e. Elater ferrugineus L., South Africa, etc.), and should include an accurate, clear and concise description of the reported work, avoiding abbreviations. The higher taxa within the title should be separated with commas and not with a semicolon, e.g.: (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterini).

Authors and Affiliations: Provide the complete names of all authors, and their addresses for correspondence, including e.g., institutional affiliation (e.g. university, institute), location (street, boulevard), city, state/province (if applicable), and country. One of the authors should be designated as the corresponding author. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to ensure that the author list, and the individual contributions to the study are accurate and complete. If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all consortium members and their affiliations should be listed after the Acknowledgements section.

Abstract and Keywords: Please have your abstract and keywords ready for input into the submission module. Keywords should ideally differ from the words used in the title.

Body Text: All papers should be in grammatically correct English. Non-native English speaking authors are required to have their manuscripts checked by a native English speaker prior to submission. Use either British/Commonwealth or American English provided that the language is consistent within the paper. A manuscript must be written with precision, clarity, and economy. The voice - active or passive - and the tense used should be consistent throughout the manuscript. Avoid the use of parenthetical comments and italics or bold for emphasis. This journal discourages the use of quotation marks except for direct quotations, words defined by the author, and words used in unusual contexts. Short quotations should be embedded in the text and enclosed in double quotation marks ("). Long quotations should be on a separate line, italicized, but without quotation marks. Single quotation marks are to be used only for a quotation that occurs within another quotation.

Spacing, Fonts, and Page Numbering: Single-space all material (text, quotations, figure legends, tables, references, etc.). Separate paragraphs with a blank line. Use a 12-point font (preferably Times New Roman or Arial).

Capitals: First capital letters should be used only in the beginning of a sentence, in proper names and in headings and subheadings, as well as to indicate tables, graphs and figure/s within the text. Software programmes should be written with capital letters (e.g., ANOVA, MANOVA, PAUP).

Italicization/Underlining: Scientific names of species and genera, long direct quotations and symbols for variables and constants (except for Greek letters), such as p, F, U, T, N, r, but not for SD (standard deviation), SE (standard error), DF (degrees of freedom) and NS (non significant) should be italicized. These symbols in illustrations and equations should be in italics to match the text. Italics should not be used for emphasis, and not in abbreviations such as e.g., i.e., et al., etc., cf. Underlining of any text is not acceptable.

Abbreviations: Abbreviations should be followed by ‘.' (full stop or period; for instance: i.e., e.g., cf., etc.). Note that you shouldn't add a full stop at the end of abbreviated words if the last letter of the abbreviation is the same as the last letter of the full word. For example, you should abbreviate "Eds", "Dr", "Mr" without full stop at the end. All measures, for instance mm, cm, m, s, L, should be written without full stop.

On the use of dashes: (1) Hyphens are used to link words such as personal names, some prefixes and compound adjectives (the last of which vary depending on the style manual in use) (2) En-dash or en-rule (the length of an 'n') is used to link spans. In the context of our journal en-dash should be used to link numerals, sizes, dates and page numbers (e.g., 1977–1981; figs 5–7; pp. 237–258); geographic or name associations (Murray–Darling River; a Federal–State agreement); and character states combinations such as long–pubescent or red–purple. (3) Em-dash or em-rule (the length of an 'm') should be used rarely, only for introducing a subordinate clause in the text that is often used much as we use parentheses. In contrast to parentheses an em-dash can be used alone. En-dashes and em-dashes should not be spaced.

Footnotes: Avoid footnotes in the body text of the manuscript. It is always possible to incorporate the footnote into the main text by rewording the sentences, which greatly facilitates reading. Additionally, footnotes are not always handled well by the journal software, and their usage may cause a failure of submission. Footnotes are acceptable only below tables; instead of numbers, please use (in order): †, ‡, §, |, ¶, #, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||, ¶, ##.

Geographical coordinates: It is strongly recommended to list geographical coordinates as taken from GPS or online gazetteer, or georeferencer (http://wwold.gbif.org/prog/digit/Georeferencing). Geographical coordinates must be listed in one of the following formats:

Definition: The locality consists of a point represented by coordinate information in the form of latitude and longitude. Information may be in the form of

  • Degrees, Minutes and Seconds (DMS),
  • Degrees and Decimal Minutes (DDM), or
  • Decimal Degrees (DD).

Records should also contain a hemisphere (E or W and N or S) or, with Decimal Degrees, minus (–) signs to indicate western and/or southern hemispheres.

Examples:

  • Example 1: 36°31'21"N; 114°09'50"W (DMS)
  • Example 2: 36°31.46’N; 114°09.84’W (DDM)
  • Example 3: 36.5243°S; 114.1641°W (DD)
  • Example 4: −36.5243; −114.1641 (DD using minus signs to indicate southern and western hemispheres)

Note on accuracy: Because GPS units are very commonly used today to record latitude/longitude, many authors simply give the GPS readings for their localities. However, these readings are much too accurate. For example, a GPS unit might give the latitude in decimal seconds as 28°16'55.87"N. Since one second of latitude is about 30 m on the ground, the second figure after the decimal in 55.87 represents 30 cm, yet a typical handheld GPS unit is only accurate at best to a few metres.

We therefore recommend two ways to report GPS-based locations. If you give the GPS reading without rounding off, make sure you include an uncertainty figure as a context for the over-accurate GPS reading. We recommend the Darwin Core definition of uncertainty (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#coordinateUncertaintyInMeters):

"The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location."

If you only give the GPS reading, please round it off to an implied precision appropriate to the error in the measurement, or to the extent of the area sampled. We suggest rounding off

  • to the nearest second in degree-minute-second format (28°16'56"N), which implies roughly ± 25–30 m at middle latitudes
  • to four decimal places in decimal degree format (28.2822°N), which implies roughly ± 10–15 m at middle latitudes
  • to two decimal places in decimal minute format (28°16.93'N), which implies roughly 15–20 m at middle latitudes

Altitude: Many GPS users simply record the elevation given by their GPS unit. However, GPS elevation is NOT the same as elevation above sea level. GPS units record the elevation above a mathematical model of the earth's surface. The difference between this elevation and elevation above sea level can be tens of metres. In any case, the accuracy of a GPS elevation is often the same as the usual accuracy in horizontal position, so a GPS elevation such as '753 m' is much too accurate and should be rounded off to 'ca 750 m'.

We strongly recommend the use of Example 2 (the DDM format). The other three are also possible but will be recalculated to DDM during the process of online mapping from the HTML version of the paper.

The only restriction on format is in creating a KML (Keyhole Markup Language) file. KML latitudes and longitudes must be in the DD format shown above in Example 4.

Please also consider submitting a table of localities with your manuscript, either as a spreadsheet or in CSV text format. By doing so you will make your specimen localities much more easily available for use in biodiversity databases and geospatial investigations. The geospatial table will be put online as supplementary material for your paper. A minimum table will have three fields: species (or subspecies) name, latitude and longitude. A full table will have the same data for each specimen lot as appears in the text of your paper. Please check latitude/longitude carefully for each entry.

Units: Use the International System of Units (SI) for measurements. Consult Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (ASTM Standard E−380−93) for guidance on unit conversions, style, and usage.

Statistics: Use leading zeroes with all numbers, including probability values (e.g., P < 0.001). For every significant F−statistic reported, provide two df values (numerator and denominator). Whenever possible, indicate the year and version of the statistical software used.

Web (HTML) links: Authors are encouraged to include links to other Internet resources in their article. This is especially encouraged in the reference section. When inserting a reference to a web-page, please include the http:// portion of the web address.

Supplementary files: Larger datasets can be uploaded separately as Supplementary Files. Tabular data provided as supplementary files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls), as an OpenOffice spreadsheets (.ods) or comma separated values file (.csv). As with all uploaded files, please use the standard file extensions.

Headings and subheadings: Main headings: The body text should be subdivided into different sections with appropriate headings. Where possible, the following standard, all caps headings should be used: INTRODUCTIONMATERIAL AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, REFERENCES. These headings need to be in bold font and capitalised on a separate line and start with a first capital letter. Please do not number headings or subheadings.

  • INTRODUCTION − The motivation or purpose of your research should appear in the Introduction, where you state the questions you sought to answer, and then provide some of the historical basis for those questions.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS − Provide sufficient information to allow someone to repeat your work. A clear description of your experimental design, sampling procedures, and statistical procedures is especially important in papers describing field studies, simulations, or experiments. If you list a product (e.g., animal food, analytical device), supply the name and location of the manufacturer. Give the model number for equipment used. Supply complete citations, including author (or editor), title, year, publisher, and version number, for computer software mentioned in your article.
  • RESULTS − Results should be stated concisely and without interpretation.
  • DISCUSSION − Focus on the rigorously supported aspects of your study. Carefully differentiate the results of your study from data obtained from other sources. Interpret your results, relate them to the results of previous research, and discuss the implications of your results or interpretations. Point out results that do not support speculations or the findings of previous research, or that are counter-intuitive. You may choose to include a Speculation subsection in which you pursue new ideas suggested by your research, compare and contrast your research with findings from other systems or other disciplines, pose new questions that are suggested by the results of your study, and suggest ways of answering these new questions.
  • CONCLUSION −This should state clearly the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance. Summary illustrations may be included.
  • REFERENCES − The list of References should be included after the final section of the main article body (typically ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS). A blank line should be inserted between single-spaced entries in the list. Authors are requested to include links to online sources of articles, whenever possible! 

Where possible, the standard headings should be used in the order given above. Additional headings and modifications are permissible.

Subordinate headings: Subordinate headings (e.g. Field study and Simulation model or Counts, Measurements and Molecular analysis), should be left-justified, italicized, and in a regular sentence case. All subordinate headings should be on a separate line.


Citations and References

Citations within the text: Before submitting the manuscript, please check each citation in the text against the References and vice-versa to ensure that they match exactly.

Citations in the text should be formatted as follows:

One author: Smith (1990) or (Smith 1990) 

Note: The citations format depends on the way it is incorporated within the article’s text:

Example:

  1. According to Smith (1990), these findings…

  2. These findings have been first reported in the beginning of the nineties (Smith 1990).

Two authors: Brock and Gunderson (2001) or (Brock and Gunderson 2001)

Note: When choosing between formats refer back to examples above.

Three or more authors: Smith et al. (1998) or (Smith et al. 1998)

Note: When choosing between formats refer back to examples above.

When citing more than one source, in-text citations should be ordered by the year of publication, starting with the earliest one:

(Smith et al. 1998, 2000, 2016; Brock and Gunderson 2001; Felt 2006).

Note: When you have a few citations from the same author but from different years (such as the case with Smith et al. above), the first year is taken into consideration when ordering the sources (in this case 1998, which is why Smith et al. come first in the list).

When having two or more fully identical citations (this can happen when you have more than one reference with exactly the same authors and years for one or two authors, or the same first author and year for author teams of three or more), the references are distinguished by adding the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the years and this marking is followed in the in-text citations, respectively:

(Reyes-Velasco et al. 2018a, Reyes-Velasco et al. 2018b)

Authorship references for species should include a "," between author and year:

Brianmyia stuckenbergi Woodley, 2012.

References: It is important to format the references properly, because all references will be linked electronically as completely as possible to the papers cited. It is desirable to add a DOI (digital object identifier) number for either the full-text or title and abstract of the article as an addition to traditional volume and page numbers. If a DOI is lacking, it is recommended to add a link to any online source of an article. Please use the following style for the reference list (or download the Pensoft EndNote style): here

Published Papers:
Polaszek A, Alonso-Zarazaga M, Bouchet P, Brothers DJ, Evenhuis NL, Krell FT, Lyal CHC, Minelli A, Pyle RL, Robinson N, Thompson FC, van Tol J (2005) ZooBank: the open-access register for zoological taxonomy: Technical Discussion Paper. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 62: 210-220.

Accepted Papers:
Same as above, but ''in press'' appears instead the year in parentheses.

Electronic Journal Articles:
Mallet J, Willmott K (2002) Taxonomy: renaissance or Tower of Babel? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18 (2): 57-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00061-7.

Paper within conference proceedings:
Orr AG (2006) Odonata in Bornean tropical rain forest formations: Diversity, endemicity and applications for conservation management. In: Cordero Rivera A (Ed.) Forest and Dragonflies. Fourth WDA International Symposium of Odonatology, Pontevedra (Spain), July 2005. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 51-78.

Book chapters:
Mayr E (2000) The biological species concept. In: Wheeler QD, Meier R (Eds) Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory: A Debate. Columbia University Press, New York, 17-29.

Books:
Goix N, Klimaszewski J (2007) Catalogue of Aleocharine Rove Beetles of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 166 pp.

Book with an institutional author:
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International code of zoological nomenclature. Fourth Edition. London: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

PhD thesis:
Dalebout ML (2002) Species identity, genetic diversity and molecular systematic relationships among the Ziphiidae (beaked whales). PhD thesis, Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland.

Link/URL:
BBC News: Island leopard deemed new species (http://news.bbc.co.uk; (Accessed: dd/mm/yyyy).

Citations of Public Resource Databases: It is highly recommended all appropriate datasets, images, and information to be deposited in public resources. Please provide the relevant accession numbers (and version numbers, if appropriate). Accession numbers should be provided in parentheses after the entity on first use. Examples of such databases include, but are not limited to:

Providing accession numbers to data records stored in global data aggregators allows us to link your article to established databases, thus integrating it with a broader collection of scientific information. Please hyperlink all accession numbers through the text or list them directly after the References in the online submission manuscript.

All journal titles should be spelled out completely and should NOT be italicized.

Provide the publisher's name and location when you cite symposia or conference proceedings; distinguish between the conference date and the publication date if both are given. Do not list abstracts or unpublished material in the References. They should be quoted in the text as personal observations, personal communications, or unpublished data, specifying the exact source, with date if possible. When possible, include URLs for articles available online through library subscription or individual journal subscription, or through large international archives, indexes and aggregators, e.g., PubMedCentral, Scopus, CAB Abstracts, etc. URLs for pdf articles that are posted on personal websites only should be avoided.

Authors are encouraged to cite in the References list the publications of the original descriptions of the taxa treated in their manuscript. If the chrysonymy for a given species is included, then all references associated with valid names and synonyms must be included in the References section.

Ordering references: All references should be ordered alphabetically.

If the references have the same first author and a varying number of co-authors, the ordering should be based on the number of co-authors starting with the lowest as follows:

Smith J (2018) Article Title. Journal Name 1: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3897

Smith J, Gunderson A (2017) Article Title. Journal Name 1: 10-20. https://doi.org/10.3897

Smith J, Gunderson A, Brock B (2015) Article Title. Journal Name 1: 20-30. https://doi.org/10.3897

In the occasion of more than one article from the same first author within any of the categories above, the references should be ordered chronologically.

If both the first author and year of publication match within the categories above, the references are distinguished by adding the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year of publication and this marking is followed in the in-text citations, respectively.

Illustrations, Figures and Tables

Figures and illustrations are accepted in the following image file formats:

  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
  • TIFF (at least 300dpi resolution, with LZW compression)
  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • JPEG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • GIF
  • BMP
  • SVG

Should you have any problems in providing the figures in one of the above formats, or in reducing the file below 20 MB, please contact the Editorial Office at africaninvertebrates@pensoft.net.

Figure legends: All figures should be referenced consecutively in the manuscript; legends should be listed consecutively immediately after the References. For each figure, the following information should be provided: Figure number (in sequence, using Arabic numerals − i.e. Figure 1, 2, 3 etc.); short title of figure (maximum 15 words); detailed legend, up to 300 words.

Illustrations of measurable morphological traits should bear mute scale bars, whose real size is to be given in the figure captions.

Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.

On the use of Google Maps
Please do NOT use maps produced by Google Earth and Google Maps in your publications, as these are subject of copyright! Here is an excerpt from Google Maps/Earth Additional Terms of Service:

Restrictions on Use. Unless you have received prior written authorization from Google (or, as applicable, from the provider of particular Content), you must not: (a) copy, translate, modify, or make derivative works of the Content or any part thereof; (b) redistribute, sublicense, rent, publish, sell, assign, lease, market, transfer, or otherwise make the Products or Content available to third parties; (c) reverse engineer, decompile or otherwise attempt to extract the source code of the Service or any part thereof, unless this is expressly permitted or required by applicable law; (d) use the Products in a manner that gives you or any other person access to mass downloads or bulk feeds of any Content, including but not limited to numerical latitude or longitude coordinates, imagery, and visible map data; (e) delete, obscure, or in any manner alter any warning or link that appears in the Products or the Content; or (f) use the Service or Content with any products, systems, or applications for or in connection with (i) real time navigation or route guidance, including but not limited to turn-by-turn route guidance that is synchronized to the position of a user's sensor-enabled device; or (ii) any systems or functions for automatic or autonomous control of vehicle behavior; (g) use the Products to create a database of places or other local listings information.

Tables: Each table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, 2, 3 etc.). Tables should also have a title that summarizes the whole table, maximum 15 words. Detailed legends may then follow, but should be concise.

Small tables can be embedded within the text, in portrait format (note that tables on a landscape page must be reformatted onto a portrait page or submitted as additional files). These will be typeset and displayed in the final published form of the article. Such tables should be formatted using the 'Table object' in a word processing program to ensure that columns of data are kept aligned when the file is sent electronically for review. Do not use tabs to format tables or separate text. All columns and rows should be visible, please make sure that borders of each cell display as black lines. Colour and shading should not be used; neither should commas be used to indicate decimal values. Please use a full stop to denote decimal values (i.e., 0.007 cm, 0.7 mm).

Larger datasets can be uploaded separately as Supplementary Files. Tabular data provided as supplementary files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls), as an OpenOffice spreadsheets (.ods) or comma separated values file (.csv). As with all uploaded files, please use the standard file extensions.


Illustrations, Figures and Tables

Figures and illustrations are accepted in the following image file formats:

  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)

  • TIFF (at least 300dpi resolution, with LZW compression)

  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)

  • JPEG (preferred format for photos or images)

  • GIF

  • BMP

  • SVG

Vector files in any of the following formats EPS, SVG or PDF are requested for phylogenetic trees and cladograms.

The journal is printed in B5 paper size with the maximum printing area of 128 mm × 199 mm. Whenever possible, individual figures should be prepared as composite figures.

Should you have any problems in providing the figures in one of the above formats, or in reducing the file below 20 MB, please contact the Editorial Office at journals@pensoft.net

Figure legends: All figures should be referenced consecutively in the manuscript; legends should be listed consecutively immediately after the References. For each figure, the following information should be provided: Figure number (in sequence, using Arabic numerals − i.e. Figure 1, 2, 3 etc.); short title of figure (maximum 15 words); detailed legend, up to 300 words.

Illustrations of measurable morphological traits should bear mute scale bars, whose real size is to be given in the figure captions.

Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.

Figure citations in the text should always be with Capital "F" and En-dash for ranges. One figure with a full stop, figures without.

Example: Fig. 1, Figs 1–3, Fig. 2A–E.

Citations of figures from other publications should always be Lower Case (fig. / figs). When two subsequent figures or parts are cited (for instance figures 1 and 2 or A and B), a comma should be used.

Example:  Figs 1, 2 and Fig. 1A, B.

Parts belong to one figure.

Example: Fig. 1A, B and Fig. 2A-E.


On the use of Google Maps
Please do NOT use maps produced by Google Earth and Google Maps in your publications, as these are subject of copyright! Here is an excerpt from Google Maps/Earth Additional Terms of Service:
Restrictions on Use. Unless you have received prior written authorization from Google (or, as applicable, from the provider of particular Content), you must not: (a) copy, translate, modify, or make derivative works of the Content or any part thereof; (b) redistribute, sublicense, rent, publish, sell, assign, lease, market, transfer, or otherwise make the Products or Content available to third parties; (c) reverse engineer, decompile or otherwise attempt to extract the source code of the Service or any part thereof, unless this is expressly permitted or required by applicable law; (d) use the Products in a manner that gives you or any other person access to mass downloads or bulk feeds of any Content, including but not limited to numerical latitude or longitude coordinates, imagery, and visible map data; (e) delete, obscure, or in any manner alter any warning or link that appears in the Products or the Content; or (f) use the Service or Content with any products, systems, or applications for or in connection with (i) real time navigation or route guidance, including but not limited to turn-by-turn route guidance that is synchronized to the position of a user's sensor-enabled device; or (ii) any systems or functions for automatic or autonomous control of vehicle behavior; (g) use the Products to create a database of places or other local listings information.

Tables: Each table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, 2, 3 etc.). Tables should also have a title that summarizes the whole table, maximum 15 words. Detailed legends may then follow, but should be concise.

Small tables can be embedded within the text, in portrait format (note that tables on a landscape page must be reformatted onto a portrait page or submitted as additional files). These will be typeset and displayed in the final published form of the article. Such tables should be formatted using the 'Table object' in a word processing program to ensure that columns of data are kept aligned when the file is sent electronically for review. Do not use tabs to format tables or separate text. All columns and rows should be visible, please make sure that borders of each cell display as black lines. Colour and shading should not be used; neither should commas be used to indicate decimal values. Please use a full stop to denote decimal values (i.e., 0.007 cm, 0.7 mm).

Larger datasets can be uploaded separately as Supplementary Files. Tabular data provided as supplementary files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls), as an OpenOffice spreadsheets (.ods) or comma-separated values file (.csv). As with all uploaded files, please use the standard file extensions.


Taxonomic Treatments

General guidelines

By publishing in this journal you are already creating a modern taxonomic product that is more accessible than previous print only works. The following guidelines are provided to ensure that other elements of the work follow modern standards and enable the full advantage of the ARPHA platform.

  • Include unique specimen identifiers for type material. Unique identifiers are for example museum collections specimen IDs. Unique identifiers can be provided also by international taxon-based databases that do not indicate ownership, such as AntWeb.org for ants, for example.
  • Holotype should not deposited in private collections.
  • Include images of type material or representative species. Imaging is not a technical problem anymore and is provided by many institutional collections or international taxon-based services (again,AntWeb.org is a good example as they will provide free imaging of ant type material if necessary).
  • Specimen data of material examined provided as auxiliary file as a .txt or .cvs file or table at end of document, based on the Darwin Core standard. Specimen file should include unique specimen identifiers when possible.
  • Include latitude, longitude, elevation, habitat, microhabitat information of primary type material. For format of geographical coordinates see section "Main text" above.
  • Provide dichotomous key of taxa or related taxa (i.e. species group) or links to online-based keys.
  • Single species descriptions should be clearly justified with regard as to why a more detailed larger scale, comparative revision was not conducted. For descriptions of single species see also section "Focus and Scope".

Sequence data

Manuscripts containing novel amino acid sequences (e.g. primer sequences) will only be accepted if they carry an International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD) accession number from the European Biology Laboratory (EMBL), GenBank Data Libraries (GenBank) or DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). We strongly recommend that authors include institutional catalog numbers for specimens preserved in collections, and information identifying sequences that are derived from type specimens (see below) when they deposit data in genetic databanks. A summary table with the INSD accession [catalog] numbers should be included in either Materials and Methods or Data Resources section of the paper. If specimens were not vouchered (tissued specimens should be vouchered whenever possible!), collection locality data and possibly photographs of tissued specimens must be provided. A nomenclature for genetic sequences for types and confidently identified nontype specimens has been proposed by Chakrabarty et al. (2013); a sequence from a holotype is identified as genseq-1, one from a paratype is identified as genseq-2, one from a topotype is genseq-3, etc. The genetic marker(s) used should also be incorporated into the nomenclature (e.g. genseq-2 COI).

Examples

Table 1. Ranking Sequence Reliability. Ranking of source materials of genetic sequences based on reliability of taxonomic identification. Examples of the source material are listed in the third column with the last column providing the corresponding GenSeq nomenclature (after Chakrabarty et al. (2013)).

Reliability Ranking

Source Materials

Examples

Corresponding GenSeq Nomenclature

Highest
1st

Primary Types

Holotype, Lectotype, Syntype, Isosyntype, Neotype, Isotype

genseq-1

2nd

Secondary Types

Paratype, Paralectotypes, etc.

genseq-2

3rd

Topotypes (vouchered), or non-type specimens listed in original description or redescription

Topotype, Non-type specimen listed in original description or redescription

genseq-3

4th

Collections-vouchered non-types (not from original description or redescription)

Vouchered specimen

genseq-4

5th

Photo voucher only

No specimen voucher but photo voucher available

genseq-5

Lowest

No voucher

Non-vouchered

No classification

 

Table 2. Example Reporting Table. Examples of how links between genetic sequences and vouchers in institutional collections could be displayed as a table in publications reporting new sequences.

Species

Specimen Catalog #

GenBank #

GenSeq Nomenclature

COI

ND1

Typhleotris mararybe

LSUMZ 13636 (holotype)

HM590594

HM590606

genseq-1 COI, ND1

Paretroplus tsimoly

AMNH 229558 (paratype)

JZ590596

NA

genseq-2 COI

Nandopsis haitiensis

UMMZ 236321 (topotype)

BK590595

BK590607

genseq-3 COI, ND1

Halieutichthys intermedius

FMNH 96353 (non-type specimen voucher)

AY722169

AY722306

genseq-4 COI, ND1

Equulites absconditus

NMNH 12345PV2 (photo voucher)

NA

BG34621

genseq-5 ND1

 

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

This journal will publish papers that strictly adhere to the rules of the last edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and its amendment. Authors are also advised to follow all recommendations of the Code and to consult the guidelines below, as well as ICZN's manual Best practice in the use of the scientific names of animals prior to submitting the manuscript.

General: Each first mentioning of an animal species name within the text must be provided with author(s)' name(s). Year of publication of an animal species should be given in taxonomic revisions with quotation of the work providing the original species’ description in the list of references.

New names: When new taxonomic acts are proposed, they should be explicitly indicated as being new by adding the respective abbreviation after the taxon name i.e., sp. nov., comb. nov., nomen nov. Authors of newly described taxa should be given any time the taxon is mentioned, if different from the publication authors.

Examples:

  • Genus X-us Smith, new genus (author(s) of the publication and authority (-ies) of the taxon is/are identical);

  • X-us albus Jones & Peters, new species (the publication is authored by persons different in composition or combination from the authority (-ies) of the taxon itself, e.g. Smith, Jones & Peters or Peters & Jones).

We highly recommend that authors of new species are also included as co-authors of the work where the taxa are described. If the authors of the work do not want to include the authors of the taxonomic name then to be absolutely certain that the authority for the name is unequivocal there should be a statement in the work saying that these authors (of the name) are responsible for making the name available under the code (Article 50.1.2, etc.) i.e. they are responsible for coining the name and for satisfying all other criteria for availability.

New family-group names: Although all family group names are derived/based on their type genus, the type genus is to be compulsorily designated in any description of a family-group name published after 31st December 1999 (Article 16.2). It is not sufficient that the type genus is mentioned as belonging to the new family-group name; it must be stated that this is the type genus. We recommend a single type line as: Type-genus: Musca Linnaeus, 1758.

New genus-group names: The origin ("etymology", or "derivatio nominum") of name and its gender should be indicated. The type-species and the character of the proposed taxonomic act should be specified for new genus-group names. The type species name should be given in its original combination with an author and year. If the type species is now considered a junior synonym there need to be a clear mention of that. The fixation type should derive from the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (see Articles 68 & 69; original designation, monotypy, absolute tautonymy, Linnaean tautonymy, subsequent monotypy, subsequent designation).

Example:

  • Sympycnus Loew

Type-species: Porphyrops annulipes Meigen, 1824 by subsequent designation of Coquillett (1910: 610) =pulicarius Fallen, 1823.

New species-group names: According to the ICZN Art. 11.9, but also Art. 11.3 the origin "etymology", or "derivatio nominum") new species-group names should be supplemented by information on whether the epithet is an 1) adjective or participle in the nominative singular; 2) noun in the nominative singular; 3) a noun in the genitive case; 4) an adjective used a substative in the genitive case; or 5) an arbitrary combination of letters (ICZN Art. 11.3). For species-group names, there are two separate statements of type information that are needed:

  • the statement of species’ type locality – that is the exact place whence the primary type origins, including exact collecting dataplace with geographical coordinates, geographical or political unit (Area/ District/ State) and country;also, if possible, supplementary locality information should be included – habitat type, method of collecting, date, collector’s names, host name (for parasites), etc.

  • there should be a separate statement about the type specimen, exact quotation of its original label, condition of specimen (dry pinned, in alcohol, slide, fossil, etc.) and repository (organization’s name and city).

Examples:

For a new species:

  • Type-locality: USA, Viriginia: Fairfax County, Kingstowne, 38°46'N, 77°07'W, broad-leaf forest, under bark, 10 July 2000, J. Smith leg.

  • Type-specimen: Holotype male, pinned, with genitalia in a separate microvial. Original label: "USA, VA, Fairfax, Kingstowne, 38°46'N, 77°07'W, 12 Oct 2003, BJ & FC Thompson" "USNM ENT 00033805" [Code 49 barcode], "HOLOTYPE / Xylota / x-us / Thompson [red handwritten label].

For a previously described species:

Lectotype male, pinned … [details] here designated to fix the concept of X-us albus Jones and to ensure the universal and consistent interpretation of the same. Or … [details then] by designation of Smith (1976: 999).

Previously published names: For a previously published name, please provide the year of description. Also use the parentheses convention for subsequent new combinations.

[Etymology]

Authors of new species name should state exactly what the epithet is in terms of the ICZN, as outlined in Article 11.9.1.1 to 11.9.1.4 as well as 11.3. A name may be a word in or derived from Latin, Greek or any other language (even one with no alphabet), or be formed from such a word. In short, a name can be declared as arbitrary combination (the best solution) or must be or be treated as:

I) a word of two or more letters, or a compound word, and, if a Latin or latinized word must be, or be treated as:

  1. an adjective or participle in the nominative singular (as in Echinus esculentus, Felis marmorata, Seioptera vibrans), or
  2. a noun in the nominative singular standing in apposition to the generic name (as in Struthio camelus, Cercopithecus diana), or
  3. a noun in the genitive case (e.g. rosae, sturionis, thermopylarum, galliae, sanctipauli, sanctaehelenae, cuvieri, merianae, smithorum), or
  4. an adjective used as a substantive in the genitive case and derived from the specific name of an organism with which the animal in question is associated (as in Lernaeocera lusci, a copepod parasitic on Trisopterus luscus).

II) An adjectival species-group name proposed in Latin text but written otherwise than in the nominative singular because of the requirements of Latin grammar is available provided that it meets the other requirements of availability, but it is to be corrected to the nominative singular if necessary.

Arranging sections within species treatments (sections in square brackets are requested for new descriptions only!):

[Name]
[Material]
    - [Type material]
    - Other material
[Diagnosis]
[Description]
[Etymology]
Distribution
Ecology (including phenology)
Conservation status (optional, we encourage authors to follow the IUCN categories and criteria, please see http://www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_3_1#critical))
Discussion (optional, but very desirable)


Materials Examined Formatting Guidelines

Authors are strongly encouraged to adhere to the new fine-grained formatting of the material examined (species occurrence records) as shown below. Please note that this new fine-grained formatting is NOT COMPULSORY and is introduced for testing for an undefined period, during which we hope to receive your feedback. Nonetheless, it is recommended to follow the guidelines to ensure accurate conversion of your records to XML and  consequent indexing in GBIF, Plazi, and other important resources. Indexing of each individual occurrence record in GBIF and linking back to your article will provide much higher visibility, data usability, dissemination, and citation probability of your work!  Adapted from: CETAF best practices in electronic publishing in taxonomy (https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.475). 

Order

Each material citation is composed of diverse data fields (material, locality, date, etc.) that are tagged, using Darwin Core (DWC) terms. To efficiently perform this, it is important to ensure that the different fields of a material citation are consistently presented in the same order throughout the article or, at the very least, within a taxon treatment.

The preferred order is as follows:

COUNTRY • specimens [e.g. 1 ♂, size]; geographic/locality data [from largest to smallest]; coordinates; altitude/elevation/depth [using alt./m a.s.l. etc.]; date [format: 16 Jan. 1998]; collector [followed by "leg."]; other collecting data [e.g. micro habitat/host/method of collecting]; barcodes/identifiers [e.g. GenBank: MG779236]; institution code and specimen code [e.g. CBF 06023].

For botanical and mycological data, please use "Collection number" instead of "collector [followed by "leg."]". The collection number encompasses all gatherings from a single specimen (e.g., leaves, flowers, piece of wood) which may be preserved on different herbarium sheets and in different herbaria.

The preferred format for botanical/mycological data should be as follows:

GABON - Estuaire • J.J. Wieringa et al. 6543 (IEC, K, LBV, MO, P (P01234567), US, WAG (WAG0012345, WAG0012346, wood: WAG0012347, fl in spirit: WAG0012348)); 35 km NE of Libreville; 0°38.8'N, 9°58.9'E; alt. 30 m; 12 Feb. 2017; fl • E.L.A.N. Simons 1212 (P, LBV, WAG (WAG0987654), Z); Libreville, Sibang arboretum; 0°27.8'N 9°29.4'E; alt. 16 m; 15 Jul 2017; fr. - Ogooué-Maritime  • J.J. Bos 10123 (P, WAG); around Port Gentil; 0.82°S, 8.80°E; alt. 5 m; 4 Apr 1986; fl, fr.

Punctuation

A bullet point (• [unicode: 2022]) is used to signify the beginning of a material citation. Within each citation, the different fields are delimited by a semicolon. A single field can be composed of several elements, which are separated by commas (e.g. the details region, area, town and street for the ‘locality’ field).

Semicolons should not be used elsewhere in a material citation.

Repetitive data

Authors can indicate repetitive data with indications such as "same data as for holotype", "same data as for preceding", "same locality", "ibid", etc. as long as the same method and wording are used consistently throughout the paper.

If a material citation is identical to another with only one or two differences, the exceptions should be listed after the mention of repeated data e.g.:

‘Missing’ elements

It is not necessary to include information such as "no date" or "no locality data"; just list the elements that are available.

Label citations

We recommend including photos of labels as figures if they contain data that cannot be standardised. Double quote marks (" ") must be used to represent label citations that do not correspond to (or cannot be reliably interpreted as) specific DWC terms. This data will simply be parsed as a verbatim citation.

Only quote marks should be used to present verbatim label data and they should not appear elsewhere in a material citation.

Author interpretation

Use square brackets [ ] to distinguish data that has been interpreted by the author e.g., coordinates interpreted from a locality, or translations of label data:

Data fields

The different data fields that are tagged in a material citation are explained below, along with the formatting needed to achieve maximum output and precision.

Any specimen data presented in a separate table cannot be linked back to the citation and tagged for conversion.

Country (country / waterBody)

The citations must be listed by either country or water body, using a separate paragraph for each new zone. Countries should be listed in alphabetical order. If another method is used (e.g. geographic groups) please state this in the Material and Methods section.

If the material is organised by region, please use the following format:

Material (organismQuantity / organismQuantityType / sex / typeStatus)

This field comprises several indications about the specimens cited: number, type (e.g. specimen, juv., shell, excuviae), sex and type status. All subsequent elements of a citation will be applied to the specimens presented in this field.

Locality (higherGeography)

The locality data is listed from least to most specific, using commas to divide each detail. It is recommended to employ the English name in current usage where possible.

If there is a particular reason to use a different system, e.g. spelling/transcription variations or archaic names, such details should preferably be identified using quotes, with their current names given in square brackets, but this is not mandatory.

Geo-coordinates (decimalLatitude / decimalLongitude)

Diverse formats are accepted but it is important to include the degrees symbol (° [unicode: 00B0]), which distinguishes the data as a geo-coordinate. It is also preferable to include the direction (N/E/S/W):

●    degrees minutes seconds: 40°26′46″ N, 79°58′56″ W
●    degrees decimal minutes: 40°26.767′ N, 79°58.933′ W
●    decimal degrees: 40.446° N, 79.982° W

Geo-coordinates should be presented to a maximum of 5 decimal places.

Altitude/elevation/depth (verbatimAltitude / verbatimDepth)

This type of measurement should be explicit in the material citations, e.g.:

●    Altitude: alt. 489 m or 547 m a.s.l.
●    Depth: depth 20 m

Collection date (eventDate)

Format: d(d) Mmm. YYYY

Date ranges should be shown with an n-dash, e.g.:

Jan.–Mar. 2018 / 5 Feb.–6 Apr 2016 / 14 Dec. 2008–3 Feb. 2009 / 1950–1953

Collector (recordedBy)

The name(s) of the collector(s) should always be followed by "leg."; for institutions or collecting programmes, "exped." can be used, e.g. MNHN exped.

For botanical and mycological data, "Collection number" instead of "collector [followed by "leg."]". The collection number encompasses all gatherings from a single specimen (e.g., leaves, flowers, piece of wood) which may be preserved on different herbarium sheets and in different herbaria.

Additional data

Ideally, the data fields identified above should be listed before other collection data. If you choose to use a different order, it is important to be as consistent as possible throughout the paper, or at least within a single treatment. You may use a semicolon to separate the additional data into appropriate fields, e.g.:

Additional data can also be given in the appropriate field between brackets, e.g.:

Associated sequences

Accession numbers and barcodes should be identified as such, e.g.:

GenBank: U34853.1

Repository data (institutionCode / catalogNumber)

The repository data field should be composed of an institution acronym and a catalogue number (where available), using a colon to separate the two elements.

Institution acronym

All acronyms for repositories must feature in a distinct list in the Materials and Methods section, under the title Repositories, Institutional acronyms or Institutional abbreviations.

Specimen code

The specimen/catalogue code(s) should be listed after the institution code.

Where a specimen code is available, it should be explicit which specimen it refers to. This guarantees unambiguous interpretation, both by readers and upon XML conversion.

E.g., in the citation below, we cannot distinguish which specimens are catalogued under which code:

NAMIBIA • 2 ♂♂, 4 imm.; Grootfontein, Nosib Cave; 8 Feb. 1995; SEGL leg.; SAMC B7732, B8870.

This citation should be presented as follows:

NAMIBIA • 2 ♂♂; Grootfontein, Nosib Cave; 8 Feb. 1995; SEGL leg.; SAMC B7732 • 4 imm.; same data as for preceding; SAMC B8870.

Exceptions:

1.   If several specimens share the same code, e.g.:

SOUTH AFRICA • 2 ♀♀, 4 imm.; same data as for preceding; SAMC B8890.

2.   If the specimens possess identical data, including the sex, their specimen codes can be given together, e.g.:

SOUTH AFRICA • 5 ♂♂; Windhoek, Daan Viljoen Game Reserve; 22°32′16.14″ S, 16°54′44.16″ E; 12 Aug. 2005; G. Binford leg.; NMNW 45845, 4590 to 4593 • 4 ♂♂;  Northern  Cape  Province,  Eselsfontein,  south  of  Grootdrink;  28.62° S, 21.68° E; 13 Nov. 2005; M. Burger, P. Braad and A. Hill leg.; PPRI 2009/3830 to 3833.

Ranges & multiple specimens

Use the word "to" in order to show a range of specimen numbers. E.g.:

NHMUK 213584 to 213595

Materials and Methods

In line with responsible and reproducible research, as well as FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability) data principles, we highly recommend that authors describe in detail and deposit their science methods and laboratory protocols in the open access repository protocols.io.

Once deposited on protocols.io, protocols and methods will be issued a unique digital object identifier (DOI), which could be then used to link a manuscript to the relevant deposited protocol. By doing this, authors could allow for editors and peers to access the protocol when reviewing the submission to significantly expedite the process.  

Furthermore, an author could open up his/her protocol to the public at the click of a button as soon as their article is published.

Stepwise instructions:

  1. Prepare a detailed protocol via protocols.io.

  2. Click Get DOI to assign a persistent identifier to your protocol.

  3. Add the DOI link to the Methods section of your manuscript prior to submitting it for peer review.

  4. Click Publish to make your protocol openly accessible as soon as your article is published (optional).

  5. Update your protocols anytime.


Supplementary Files

Online publishing allows an author to provide datasets, tables, video files, or other information as supplementary information, greatly increasing the impact of the submission. Uploading of such files is possible in Step 6 of the submission process.

The maximum file size for each Supplementary File is 20 MB.

The Supplementary Files will not be displayed in the printed version of the article but will exist as linkable supplementary downloadable files in the online version.

While submitting a supplementary file the following information should be completed:

  • File format (including name and a URL of an appropriate viewer if format is unusual)

  • Title of data

  • Description of data

All supplementary files should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. 'See supplementary file 1: Movie 1" for the original data used to perform this analysis.

Ideally, the supplementary files should not be platform-specific, and should be viewable using free or widely available tools. Suitable file formats are:

For supplementary documentation:

  • PDF (Adobe Acrobat)

For animations:

  • SWF (Shockwave Flash)

For movies:

  • MOV (QuickTime)

  • MPG (MPEG)

For datasets:

  • XLS (Excel spreadsheet)

  • CSV (Comma separated values)

  • ODS (OpenOffice spreadsheets)

As for images, file names should be given in the standard file extensions. This is especially important for Macintosh users, since the Mac OS does not enforce the use of standard file extensions. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet).


Concise Copyediting Instructions

The copyediting instructions below represent a concise summary of the journal's formatting requirements described in finer detail in the Author Guidelines. The instructions are intended for use by the authors during preparation of the final revised versions of their manuscripts, technical editors, copy editors and typesetters.  

Author names

  • Omit titles, degrees, etc.
  • Provide ORCID if available

Affiliation

(Department,) Institution, City, Country

Article title

Title of article: Subtitle of article

  • Title: Sentence case
  • Colon between title and subtitle (if any)
  • No footnotes
  • No bold (use when needed sub-/superscript, and/or italics only for the terms in Latin)
  • Higher taxa within the title should be separated with commas and not with a semicolon

Running head

  • A short version of title up to 50 characters (including spaces); normally the short title should have been suggested by the authors and checked for clarity by the copy editor

Abstract

  • No references to tables, figures, etc., no footnotes
  • No citations (preferably)
    • If citations unavoidable: Complete citations, allowing unambiguous identification of cited publication!
  • Must be written in third person
  • Note: The abstract has to be a stand-alone entity, to present a really well written and concise summary of the article! A special care for copy editors to check!
  • Designations of nomenclatural novelties should be in bold and spelled in the way suggested ( sp. nov., gen. nov., comb. nov. )

Keywords (up to 8 words)

keyword a, keyword b, keyword n

  • Do not repeat words from the title
  • Listed in alphabetical order and separated by commas
  • Lowercase letters, except proper names
  • No bold font
  • Without any punctuation marks after last keyword

Tables

  • Table caption: Start with label "Table N." in bold. Sentence case, i.e.:
    • Table 2. Table caption text.
  • Numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals
  • Heading for every column (including the leftmost!)
  • No shading of cells, rows, columns; no colored fonts
  • No horizontal or vertical lines in table body
  • Same number of decimal places for same statistics (usually within same column)
  • Text formatting in the cell without paragraph and line break
  • Table must be in an editable format (.docx, .xlsx, etc., not as images)
  • Caption and footnotes as texts (not as part of a table)

Figures

  • Figure caption: Start with label "Figure N." in bold. Sentence case, i.e.:
    • Figure 6. Figure caption text.
  • Numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals
  • Figure parts: Use capital letters in bold. No punctuation separator, i.e.:
      • Figure 1. Figure general caption text. A part caption text B part caption text N part caption text.
    • If abbreviations are used, these are placed after the parts with a colon, i.e.:
      Abbreviations: xxxx
    • If there are scale bars on the figure parts, reference to them is last and in the format: Scale bars: 20 μm (D, N, O, Q); 50 μm (F, K); 10 μm (G, P); 5 μm (H); 100 μm (M).
    • High quality (at least 300 dpi)
    • Text sharp and readable (e.g., no overlap of text and graphical elements like lines)
    • White or transparent background
    • No image border
    • Caption as text (not as part of the image)

      Capitalization

      • Article title: Sentence case
      • Running head: Sentence case
      • Section and subsection titles:
        • For separated titles (usually H1-H3): Sentence case
        • For paragraph titles (usually H4): Sentence case
      • Table captions: Sentence case
      • Headings of table rows and columns:
        • Sentence case or lower case (check for consistency only!)
      • Figure captions: Sentence case
      • In text body: Nouns followed by numerals/letters (citations of figures, tables, appendices and supplementary files) e.g.:
        • Fig. 4; Figs 1, 2; Table 2; Appendix 1
      • In text body: Titles of articles, book chapters, books, tests
      • In references: Sentence case

      Equations and statistical symbols

      • Typeface
        • standard typeface for Greek letters, sub-/superscripts, and abbreviations that are not variables
        • italic typeface for all other statistical symbols
      • Space before and after equal/inequality signs
      • Same number of decimal places for decimal values
      • Omit the zero before a decimal fraction, when the statistic cannot exceed 1, e.g., p = .34
        • Alternative A: Omit the zero before a decimal fraction only for the following statistics: p, r, R (and R 2), α (Cronbach’s α), η2 (Eta-Square, also ηp 2) .
        • Alternative B: If zero is omitted before a decimal fraction, this should be done consistently for the respective statistic.
      • Standard formats for common statistics, e.g., t(23) = 3.51, p = .002
        • commas (not semicolons!) between test statistics and p values
        • exact p values, if p not less than .001

      Text body

      • Regular font usage:
        • Main text
        • Abbreviations e.g., i.e., et al., etc., cf., vs.
        • Greek letter e.g., α, β, γ, δ, ε, σ, φ, χ, ω
      • Italic font usage:
        • Scientific names of taxa of species and genera (authorities in regular font, not in italics)
        • Long direct quotations
        • Symbols for variables and constants, such as p, F, U, T, N, r , but not for SD (standard deviation), SE (standard error), DF (degrees of freedom), and NS (non significant). These symbols in illustrations and equations should be in italics to match the text.
        • Do not use italics for emphasis
      • No underlining
      • Bold font usage:
        • Subheadings, sections and subsections
        • Figure captions – For the label and designation of figure’s parts:
          • Figure 1. Figure general caption text. A part caption text B part caption text N part caption text.
        • Table captions – For the label:
          • Table 1. Table caption text.
        • Designations of nomenclatural novelties should be in bold (e.g. sp. nov., gen. nov., comb. nov. )
        • In systematic sections for specimen designation such us: holotype, paratype, syntype, lectotype, isotype , etc.
        • Abbreviations of institutions or morphological characters or indices listed in the section Materials and methods, i.e.:
          • NMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna
          • NHML Natural History Museum, London
          • EL length of elytra
          • EW maximum width of elytra
          • TL total length (PL+EL)
        • In species descriptions – designation of main anatomical structures followed by a colon mark, i.e. Head:…, Thorax:…, Legs:…, Abdomen:, etc., in this case these should be followed by a section describing other anatomical organs and structures attached to these.
        • Subsection "Specimens examined" - the preferred order is as follows, HOWEVER THESE FINE-GRAINED FORMATTING GUIDELINES ARE NOT COMPULSORY. Authors who follow the guidelines will benefit from the submission of their specimen records to GBIF after publication. The records on GBIF will bear the article citation details contributiing to a wider dissemination and re-use of the published data.
          • COUNTRY • specimens [e.g. 1 ♂, size ]; geographic/locality data [from largest to smallest]; coordinates; altitude/elevation/depth [using alt./m a.s.l. etc.]; date [format: 16 Jan. 1998]; collector [followed by "leg."]; other collecting data [e.g. micro habitat/host/method of collecting]; barcodes/identifiers [e.g. GenBank: MG779236]; institution code and specimen code [e.g. CBF 06023].
            For Example: Holotype: CHINA • ♀; Sichuan, Kangding; 30.04°N, 101.57°E; 15.VI.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-06, original number ZYZ-2017-28. Paratypes: CHINA • 1♀1♂; Sichuan, Kangding; 29.VI.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-01, Hyp-2018-02, original number ZYZ-2017-08 • 1♀; Sichuan: Kangding; 2.VIII.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-03, original number ZYZ-2017-20 • 1♂, Sichuan: Kangding; 29.VI.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-08, original number ZYZ-2017-029.
          • Punctuation:
            A bullet point "•" (unicode: 2022) is used to signify the beginning of a material citation. Within each citation, the different fields are delimited by a semicolon. A single field can be composed of several elements, which are separated by commas (e.g. the details region, area, town and street for the ‘locality’ field). Semicolons should not be used elsewhere in a material citation.
          • Repetitive data: Authors can indicate repetitive data with indications such as "same data as for holotype", "same data as for preceding", "same locality", "ibid", etc. as long as the same method and wording are used consistently throughout the paper.
          • ‘Missing’ elements: It is not necessary to include information such as "no date" or "no locality data"; just list the elements that are available.
          • see more details here
      • Quotation marks
        • Avoid quotation marks except for direct quotations, words defined by the author, and words used in unusual contexts.
        • Short quotations should be embedded in the text and enclosed in double quotation marks ("). Long quotations should be on a separate line, italicized, but without quotation marks.
        • Single quotation marks are to be used only for a quotation that occurs within another quotation.
      • Hyphen and dash characters
        • Consistent use of (-, –, —).
        • In contrast to parentheses an em-dash can be used alone.
        • En-dashes and em-dashes should not be spaced.
          • Hyphens (-) are used to:
            • link words such as personal names, some prefixes and compound adjectives (the last of which vary depending on the style manual in use)
          • En-dash (–) or en-rule (the length of an 'n') is used to:
            • link spans.
            • link numerals, sizes, dates and page numbers (e.g., 1977–1981; figs 5–7; pp. 237–258)
            • geographic or name associations (e.g., Murray–Darling River; a Federal–State agreement)
            • character states combinations (e.g., long–pubescent or red–purple).
          • Em-dash (—) or em-rule (the length of an 'm') should be used rarely:
            • only for introducing a subordinate clause in the text that is often used much as we use parentheses.

      Section hierarchy

      • No more than 4 levels, from hierarchical level 1 (H1) to hierarchical level 4 (H4)
      • Unambiguous hierarchy levels
      • No numbering of hierarchical levels

      Section titles

      • Capitalization:
        • For separated titles (usually H1-H3): Sentence case
        • For paragraph titles (usually H4): Sentence case

      Mandatory statements

      • Funding
        • If missing, add the following statement (depending on the number of authors):
          • The author has no funding to report.
          • The authors have no funding to report.
      • Competing interests
        • If missing, add the following statement (depending on the number of authors):
          • The author has declared that no competing interests exist.
          • The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
      • Acknowledgements (= non-financial support)
        • If missing, add the following statement (depending on the number of authors):
          • The author has no support to report.
          • The authors have no support to report.
      • Data Resources (mandatory for empirical articles)

      Geographical coordinates

      One of the following formats should be used:

      • Degrees, Minutes and Seconds (DMS), i.e.:
        • 36°31'21"N; 114°09'50"W
      • Degrees and Decimal Minutes (DDM), i.e.:
        • 36°31.46'N; 114°09.84'W
      • Decimal Degrees (DD), i.e.:
        • 36.5243°S; 114.1641°W
        • −36.5243; −114.1641 (using minus to indicate southern and western hemispheres)

      In-Text Citations

      • References
        • 1-2 authors
          • Jackson and Miller (2012) found out that...
          • A recent study (Jackson and Miller 2012) confirmed that...
        • 3 or more authors
          • Jackson et al. (2012) found out that...
          • A recent study (Jackson et al. 2012) confirmed that...
        • Multiple sources in chronological order:
          • same authors different years - separated by a comma:
            • Jackson and Miller (2012, 2015) found out that...
            • Recent studies (Jackson et al. 2012, 2015) confirmed that...
          • different authors - separated by a semicolon:
            • (Smith et al. 1998, 2000, 2016; Brock and Gunderson 2001; Felt 2006)
          • two or more fully identical citations (the same authors and years) are distinguished by adding the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year:
            • Jackson 2008a, 2008b
            • Jackson and Miller 2014a, 2014b
            • Reyes-Velasco et al. 2018a, 2018b
        • Sources with page numbers
          • Jackson and Miller (2012: 120–121) found out that
          • A recent study (Jackson and Miller 2012: 120) confirmed that
      • Figures:
        • Fig. 1
        • Fig. 1A, B
        • Fig. 1A–D
        • Figs 1, 2
        • Figs 1–3
        • Figs 1A, B, 3F, G, 7A
      • Tables:
        • Table 1
        • Tables 1, 2
        • Tables 1–3
      • Appendixes:
        • Appendix 1
        • Appendices 1, 2
        • Appendices 1–4
      • Referenced materials from other sources:
        • All figures, tables, etc., from other sources should be written with small letters i.e.: see fig. 2 in Author (Year) ...

      References

      • Author names: surname first; all given names abbreviated, no full stops, commas or spaces, i.e.:
        • Lyal CHC
        • van Tol J
        • de Albuquerque PRA
      • Different authors separated by comma
      • Year in brackets; no comma or full stop after it
      • No italics (except for Latin terms)

      Published papers:

      Polaszek A, Alonso-Zarazaga M, Bouchet P, Brothers DJ, Evenhuis NL, Krell FT, Lyal CHC, Minelli A, Pyle RL, Robinson N, Thompson FC, van Tol J (2005) ZooBank: The open-access register for zoological taxonomy: Technical Discussion Paper. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 62: 210–220.

      Accepted papers:

      Same as above, but ''in press'' appears instead of the year in parentheses.

      Electronic journal articles:

      Mallet J, Willmott K (2002) Taxonomy: Renaissance or Tower of Babel? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(2): 57–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00061-7.

      Paper within conference proceedings:

      Orr AG (2006) Odonata in Bornean tropical rain forest formations: Diversity, endemicity and applications for conservation management. In: Cordero Rivera A (Ed.) Forest and Dragonflies. Fourth WDA International Symposium of Odonatology, Pontevedra (Spain), July 2005. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 51–78.

      Book chapters:

      Mayr E (2000) The biological species concept. In: Wheeler QD, Meier R (Eds) Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, 17–29.

      Books:

      Goix N, Klimaszewski J (2007) Catalogue of Aleocharine Rove Beetles of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 166 pp.

      Book with institutional author:

      ICZN [International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature] (1999) International code of zoological nomenclature. Fourth Edition. London: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

      PhD thesis:

      Dalebout ML (2002) Species identity, genetic diversity and molecular systematic relationships among the Ziphiidae (beaked whales). PhD Thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, ## pp.

      Link/URL:

      BBC News (2012): Island leopard deemed new species http://news.bbc.co.uk/ [Accessed on dd.mm.yyyy]


      Submission Guidelines


      Submission Procedure

      Already have a Username/Password for African Invertebrates?

      Go to Login

      If you have registered yourself for any of the Pensoft journals before, you need only to enter your profile after login and check the African Invertebrates box on the journal registration page.

      Need a Username/Password?

      Go to Registration

      Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

      Submission of manuscripts to this journal is possible only through the online submission module. We kindly request authors to consult the Focus and Scope section prior to submission. In order to submit a manuscript to African Invertebrates, authors are required to register with the journal and/or to login. Once logged in, you will find the online submission system either by clicking the "Submit a manuscript" button.

      The manuscript submission process is separated into the following steps:

      • Step 1: Specifying the manuscript type and completing the submission checklist

      • Step 2: Choosing the payment option and requesting optional services

      • Step 3: Typing in the author(s) names and affiliation, title, abstract, keywords, and other metadata

      • Step 4: Assigning classifications categories for your manuscript using hierarchical classification trees

      • Step 5: Completing the submission metadata by adding details about any supporting agencies, conflict of interest, comments to the editors

      • Step 6: Uploading the submission pdf file and the additional files (see below for details on how to prepare it)

      • Step 7: Uploading supplementary files (see below for details) and associated metadata

      • Step 8: Suggesting reviewers, final verification of the submitted files and confirmation


      Organizing Your Submission

      Before starting your submission please make sure that your manuscript is formatted in accordance to the Author Guidelines.

      Please note that the maximum file size that may be uploaded through our online submission system is 20 MB.

      Manuscripts submitted to this journal must be divided into separate files (not larger than 20 MB each) to allow their processing by our software. Before attempting an online submission, please consider preparing the following file types:

      1. Submission file

      Review version of the manuscript in PDF format, with all figures embedded, total file size not larger than 20 MB.

      2. Additional files

      Original text file and high-resolution figures must be submitted during the same submission process asadditional files (Step 6) in one of the accepted file formats (see below). These may be compressed in order to reduce bandwidth during upload:

      • Text of the manuscript (DOC, DOCX, RTF, OpenDocument Format, ODF) with tables embedded in the text
      • Figures (each figure as an individual file in one of the following image file formats: EPS, TIFF, JPEG,PNG, GIF, BMP, not larger than 20 MB each)
      • Equations (each equation as an individual file in one of the above mentioned image file formats)

      3. Supplementary files (appendices)

      Large datasets or multimedia files, usually published as appendices in conventional print journals, should be uploaded as supplementary files, completed with associated metadata on the online submission form. Supplementary files should have their own legends.

      Most file formats are accepted. Text-only appendices must be in DOC, DOCX, RTF, or ODF formats.

      Should you have any technical problems in submitting a manuscript to this journal, please contact the Editorial Office at journals@pensoft.net.

      We encourage authors to send an enquiry to the respective Subject Editor prior to submitting a manuscript. The purpose of the presubmission enquiry is to solicit rapid initial feedback on the suitability of the manuscript for publication in this journal. Presubmission enquiries may be sent also to the Editorial Office at journals@pensoft.net.


      Article Charges


      Core Charges

      • Pages 1–16: EURO 300
      • Pages 17–30: EURO 375
      • Pages 31–50: EURO 550
      • Pages 51–100: EURO 550 + EURO 13 per each page above 51
      • Pages 101 and above: EURO 1150 + EURO 11 per each page above 101

      Please note that the above prices do not include VAT (Value Added Tax). VAT is applicable only for VAT NON-registered customers based within the European Union.

      Publication fees in open access journals cover article processing costs associated with the editorial process, layout, publication and dissemination, and ensure a free distribution of your paper at no charge for the readers. There are no Article Submission Fees. The authors submitting manuscripts to African Invertebrates benefit from:

      • Online submission and editorial management system, professional review and editorial assistance
      • Typesetting, proofreading and publication
      • Rapid publication process, usually within 1-2 weeks time after a manuscript is accepted for publication
      • Advanced publishing technologies, possibilities for data publication and various semantic Web enhancements
      • Immediate free access for everyone to your work
      • Immediate Alert Service through Email and RSS feeds for individuals to be informed about your publication
      • Registration of all new taxa in ZooBank, EOL, Globalnames, Wikispecies and other aggregators
      • Immediate distribution of your publication to scientific databases, indices and search engines (Web of Science, Google Scholar, CAB Abstracts, DOAJ Content and others)
      • Inclusion of your publication in Web of Science (ISI)
      • Archiving of your publication, electronically and in print, in trusted (e-) archives and copyright libraries
      • Author copyright and distribution under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license

      Special Issues

      Special issues enable conference organizers or project coordinators to publish a number of articles under a common theme and editorship. Depending on the number of articles to be included, Pensoft offers discounts on APCs as described in the table below.

       

      Small

      Medium

      Large

      Number of articles

      < 10

      10 – 20

      21 +

      Discount on APCs

      5%

      10%

      15%

      PR campaign

      By agreement

      By agreement

      Included

      Institutional branding

      By agreement

      By agreement

      Included

      We are happy to discuss alternative arrangements if there is a better way to suit your needs for a special issue. Please do not hesitate to contact us!


      Additional Services (Optional)

      Optional service

      Price

      Notes

      Linguistic services

      € 15 per 1800 characters

      For texts that require additional editing by a native English speaker

      Tailored PR campaign

      € 150*

      Press release, dedicated media and social networks promotion

      Tailored PR campaign + Video interview

      € 450

      Video interview organized by the Editorial Office

      Paper reprints

      At cost

      On demand

      *This service can be discounted or waived for articles of outstanding importance for the science and society

      Please note that the above prices do not include VAT (Value Added Tax). VAT is applicable only for VAT NON-registered customers based within the European Union.


      Institutional and Other Membership Plans

      Our plans provide additional flexibility and affordability for institutions, research groups, consortia, conference organizers and other larger research teams and organizations. Affiliated authors can publish in any Pensoft journal by using a streamlined payment interface. Pensoft’s plans are a great way to support open access publishing, while also simplifying budgeting, invoicing, and author reimbursement procedures. We offer three plans to choose from, however, if they do not quite suit your needs, we would be happy to discuss alternative arrangements with you. Please do not hesitate to contact us for a preliminary conversation about our plans!

      Key benefits

      Annual membership

      • Flat rate - publish all you can
      • Cost based on the size and publishing pattern of your organization
      • Beginning of year budgeting
      • One invoice / no billing during the year

      Pre-paid plans

      • Discount on APCs
      • Deposit funds up-front and spend without a time limit
      • Add funds to your account at any time
      • Choose whether to cover full (discounted) cost of publishing or split costs with authors

      Direct billing

      • No up-front payments
      • One monthly invoice for all publications by affiliated authors
      • Regular reports to track publication pattern and expenses

      Additional services we can provide upon request

      • PR campaigns for specific publications or sets of publications, including press releases and video interviews
      • Institutional branding – including institutional logos on published papers, dedicated webpages, institutional online collections of articles
      • Research output reporting, detailing number and types of publications, expenses, views, and downloads

      Please find more details about each individual plan below. If you would like to recommend Pensoft’s plans to your institution you can fill out this simple form or contact us at info@pensoft.net and we will forward your recommendation with some additional information.


      Annual Memberships

      Annual memberships allow institutions to plan their publishing expenses in the beginning of the fiscal year by providing unlimited publishing in all Pensoft journals in exchange for a flat annual payment. The cost of membership depends on the total publishing output capacity of the institution and its historical publishing pattern in Pensoft journals. We will adjust the cost of your membership annually.


      Pre-Paid Plans

      Pre-paid plans allow institutions and / or research groups to deposit a certain amount of funds with Pensoft and make them available to affiliated researchers for covering Article Processing Charges (APCs) in any Pensoft journal. Member institutions decide whether to cover APCs in full or share the expenses with the authors. Depending on the amount members are prepared to commit, Pensoft is offering a discount on APCs per the table below. Additional funds can be added to an account at any point in time within the calendar year of purchasing the plan, while leftover funds are preserved until spent.

       

      Economy

      Standard

      Premium

      Minimum deposit

      € 1,000 – 3,000

      € 3,000 – 5,000

      € 5,000 +

      Discount on APCs

      0%

      5%

      10%


      Direct Billing

      The direct billing plan allows institutions to reduce the complexity of billing and reimbursements. It consolidates all Pensoft invoices for articles authored by researchers affiliated with an institution into a single monthly bill that is sent directly to the institution.


      Guidelines for Editors


      How to Access a Manuscript

      Manuscripts can be accessed after login

      1. Login is possible after registration at the journal's website. Our Editorial Office will register all first-time editors and reviewers. New users will receive an automated notification with a request to confirm registration and account information, options for setting their password, email alerts and other features.  
        Note: All users can use their registration details to login in all three (Book, E-Book and the respective Journal) platforms of www.pensoft.net.
        Note: Please remember that you may have registered with two or more different email addresses, that is why you may have more than one valid account at www.pensoft.net. We advise using only one email address, hence one password associated with it, for all yours operations at www.pensoft.net. We highly recommend that, in case the user has two or more different accounts, to merge these through user's profile.  
        Note: The users can at any time change the initially set password and correct personal details using their user'profile menu (clicking on user's name in the upper right corner of the screen appearing after login).
      2. If you have forgotten your password, please use the function Forgot your password? or write to request it from journals@pensoft.net.

      There are two ways to access a manuscript

      1. After login, please go to the respective journal’s web page and click on My Tasks button in the upper right corner of the screen. This way, you will be able to see all manuscripts you are responsible for as author or reviewer or editor.

        Note: The manuscripts are grouped in several categories, e.g., In Review (no.), In layout (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.) etc. The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that were assigned to you.

      2. Click on the active manuscript link provided in the email notification you have received from the online editorial system. The link will lead you directly to the manuscript.


      General Responsibilities of Editors

      The Subject, or Associate, editors in Pensoft’s journals carry the main responsibility for the scientific quality of the published papers. They take the final decision on a manuscript’s acceptance or rejection and their names are listed as Academic Editor in the header of each article.

      The editorial process is facilitated through an online editorial system and a set of email notifications. The online editorial system informs the Subject Editor about any change in the status of a manuscript and associated peer review and editorial process, from submission to publication.

      The online editorial system is designed to save time and effort for Subject Editors in checking the status of the manuscripts. There is no need for editors to visit the journal’s website to keep track on the manuscript they are responsible for. The online system will inform the Subject Editor, if an invited reviewer has accepted to do a review or has declined. The email notifications contain stepwise instructions what action is needed at each stage, as well as a link to the respective manuscript (accessible by clicking on the link in the email notifivation or after login – see How to Access a Manuscript).

      The Subject Editors are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but rather focus on its scientific quality and overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. It is the author’s responsibility to submit the manuscript in linguistically and grammatically correct English. The Subject Editor should not hesitate to recommend either Reject, or Reject, but resubmission encouraged PRIOR to review process, in cases when a manuscript is scientifically poor and/or does not conform to journal’s style, and/or is written in poor English (see Note under point 1 below how to reject a manuscript prior to peer review). 

      It often happens that even carefully written manuscripts may contain small errors in orthography or stylistics. We shall be thankful if editors spot such errors during the reading process and correct them.


      Stepwise Description of the Editorial Process

      1. Once a manuscript is submitted, the Managing Editor (or the Editor-in-Chief) briefly checks the manuscript for conformance with the journal's Focus, Scope, Policies and style requirements and decide whether it is potentially suitable for publication and can be processed for review, or rejected immediately, or returned to the author for improvement and re-submission.
        Note: There are two ways to reject/return a manuscript prior to review process:
        -  Through the buttons Reject or Return to the author for correction in the Editorial tab. Please note, however, that the buttons will be made active only after a justification for the rejection or return is provided in the text field. 
        -  Through an email to the Editorial office explaining the reason for rejection or retrurn. The manuscript will be then rejected/returned through the online editorial system and the respective notification email will be sent from the Editorial Office.

      2. At this stage, the Managing Editor (or the Editor-in-Chief) can also check the manuscript for plagiarism via the iThenticate service by clicking on the "ïTehnticate report" button. Journals providing a peer review in languages other than English (for example Russian) may use other plagiarsim checking services (for example Antiplagiat).

      3. In case the manuscript is suitable, the Managing Editor (or the Editor-in-Chief) assigns it to the Subject Editor responsible for the respective topic (e.g., science branch or taxon). The Subject Editor receives a notification email on the assignment.  
        Note: The link to the respective manuscript is available in the review request email and all consequent reminder emails. The manuscript is accessible by clicking on the link in the email notifications, or via the user's dashboard after login. Please see How to Access a Manuscript above in case you have any difficulties.

      4. The Subject Editor has to read the manuscript and decide whether it is potentially suitable for publication and can be processed for review, or rejected immediately, or returned to the author for improvement and re-submission. Reasons for rejection can be a low scientific quality, non-conformance to the journal’s style/policies, and/or linguistically or grammatically poor English language.
        Note: There are two ways to reject a manuscript prior to review process:
        -  Through the buttons Reject or Reject, but re-submission encouraged in the Editorial tab. Please note, however, that the buttons will be made active only after a justification for the rejection is provided in the text field. 
        -  Through an email to the Editorial office explaining the reason for rejection. The manuscript will be then rejected/returned through the online editorial system and the respective notification email will be sent from the Editorial Office.

      5. In case the manuscript is acceptable for peer review, the Subject Editor has to invite reviewers by clicking on the Invite reviewers link. A list of reviewers will appear from which the editor can choose the appropriate ones or add new. 

      6. Once reviewers are chosen, the Subject Editor has to click the Invite reviewers green button at the end of the page which will generate emails templates with review invitations. It is highly recommended that the Subject Editor adds some personal words above the standard email text review invitation.

      7. In case a reviewer is absent from our users' data base, the editor can add his/her name and email through the Add new reviewer link, which will appear once the search field reveal no results. It is possible that the needed reviewer has already been registered in the Pensoft database either as customer or author/reviewer of another journal. If this is the case, then his/her name, affiliation and other metadata will automatically appear once the e-mail field is populated in the Create user online form.

      8. The Subject Editor receives a notification email if the reviewer has agreed to review a manuscript or declined to do that. The editor takes care to appoint additional reviewers in case some of the invited reviewers have declined.

      9. Once all reviewers submit their reviews, the Subject Editor receives an email notification, inviting him/her to consider reviewer’s opinions, read through the manuscript and take a decision through the Proceed button.
        Note: Editorial comments can be added in the online editorial form; comments and corrections are expected to be added also in the manuscript file (either on the PDF version or in the text file), that should be uploaded during finalization of the editorial decision process. 

      10. At this stage, the editor should take a decision either to (1) accept the manuscript, or (2) reject it, or (3) open a second review round. In case the manuscript is not rejected, but recommended for Minor Revision, Major Revision, or Acceptance, the author is expected to submit a revised version within a certain period of time and the Subject Editor will be notified by email about that.
        Note 1: Authors must submit revised versions as a text file using Track Changes/Comments tools of Word so that the Subject Editor can see their corrections/additions. Authors are expected to reply to the essential critiques and comments of reviewers separately through the online editorial system.
        Note 2: During the second, or next, review round, the Subject Editor may decide to ask reviewers to evaluate the revised version of the manuscript. He/she may also make a decision based on the author’s responses and the revised version of the manuscript without asking additional reviewers' support.

      11. After acceptance, the manuscript will go to layout and proofreading. The Subject Editor will be notified by email when the final proof is uploaded on the journal’s website. The Subject Editor is expected to look at the proofs and notify the Editorial Office through email in case the proofs need improvement.

      12. The Subject Editor may always access information on the manuscripts which have been edited by him/her through the menu My Tasks –> Subject Editor on the journal’s web page – In Review (no.), In Edit (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.). The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that were assigned.


      Guidelines for Reviewers

      Pensoft journals support the open science approach in the peer review and publication process. We encourage our reviewers to open their identity to the authors and consider supporting the peer review oaths, which tend to be short declarations that reviewers make at the start of their written comments, typically dictating the terms by which they will conduct their reviews (see Aleksic et al. 2015, doi: 10.12688/f1000research.5686.2 for more details):

      Principles of the open peer-review oath

      • Principle 1: I will sign my name to my review
      • Principle 2: I will review with integrity
      • Principle 3: I will treat the review as a discourse with you; in particular, I will provide constructive criticism
      • Principle 4: I will be an ambassador for the practice of open science

      How to Access a Manuscript

      Manuscripts can be accessed after login

      1. Login is possible after registration at the journal's website. Our Editorial Office will register all first-time editors and reviewers. New users will receive an automated notification with a request to confirm registration and account information, options for setting their password, email alerts and other features.  
        Note: All users can use their registration details to login in all three (Book, E-Book and the respective Journal) platforms of www.pensoft.net.
        Note: Please remember that you may have registered with two or more different email addresses, that is why you may have more than one valid account at www.pensoft.net. We advise using only one email address, hence one password associated with it, for all yours operations at www.pensoft.net. We highly recommend that, in case the user has two or more different accounts, to merge these through user's profile.  
        Note: The users can at any time change the initially set password and correct personal details using their user'profile menu (clicking on user's name in the upper right corner of the screen appearing after login).
      2. If you have forgotten your password, please use the function Forgot your password? or write to request it from journals@pensoft.net.

      There are two ways to access a manuscript

      1. After login, please go to the respective journal’s web page and click on My Tasks button in the upper right corner of the screen. This way, you will be able to see all manuscripts you are responsible for as author or reviewer or editor.

        Note: The manuscripts are grouped in several categories, e.g., In Review (no.), In layout (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.) etc. The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that were assigned to you.

      2. Click on the active manuscript link provided in the email notification you have received from the online editorial system. The link will lead you directly to the manuscript.


      General Responsibilities of Reviewers

      This journal uses a single-blind peer review process. The reviewers are encouraged to disclose their identity, if they wish so. The peer review and editorial process is facilitated through an online editorial system and a set of email notifications. The online editorial system sends the Reviewer a review request, initiated by the Subject Editor or the Editorial Office. The online system will also inform about delays in the reviewing and will confirm a successful review submission. The email notifications contain stepwise instructions about the actions needed at each stage along with the link to the respective manuscript (accessible only after login – see section How to Access a Manuscript).

      The Reviewers are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but rather focus on its scientific quality and overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. If Reviewers recognize that a manuscript requires linguistic edits, we shall be grateful for them to inform both the author and the editor about this in the report. It is the author’s responsibility to submit the manuscript in linguistically and grammatically correct English.

      It often happens that even carefully written manuscripts may contain small errors in orthography or stylistics. We shall be thankful if Reviewers spot such errors during the reading process and correct them.

      The manuscripts will generally be reviewed by two or three experts with the aim of reaching a first decision as soon as possible. Reviewers do not need to sign their reports, but are welcome to do so. They are also asked to declare any conflicts of interests.

      Reviewers are asked whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, how interesting it is and whether the quality of the writing is acceptable. Where possible, the final decision is made on the basis of the peer reviews. In cases of strong disagreement between the reports or between the authors and peer reviewers, the editor can assess these according to his/her expertise or seek advice from a member of the journal's Editorial Board.

      The ultimate responsibility for editorial decisions lies with the respective Subject Editor and/or, in some journals, with the Editor-in-Chief. All appeals should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief, who may decide to seek advice from the Subject Editors or the Editorial Board.

      Reviewers are also asked to indicate which articles they consider to be especially interesting or significant. These articles may be given greater prominence and greater external publicity, including press releases addressed to science journalists and mass media.

      During a second review round, reviewers may be asked to evaluate the revised version against their recommendations submitted during the first review round.

      Reviewers are kindly asked to be polite and constructive in their reports. Reports that may be insulting or uninformative will be rescinded.

      Reviewers are asked to start their report with a very brief summary of the reviewed paper. This will help the editor and the authors see whether the reviewer correctly understood the paper or whether a report might be based on misunderstanding.

      Furthermore, reviewers are also asked to comment on originality, structure and previous research:

      Originality: Is the paper sufficiently novel and does it contribute to a better understanding of the topic under scrutiny? Is the work rather confirmatory and repetitive?

      Structure: Is the introduction clear and concise? Does it place the work into the context that is necessary for a reader to comprehend aims, hypotheses tested, experimental design or methods? Are Material and Methods clearly described and sufficiently explained? Are reasons given when choosing one method over another one from a set of comparable methods? Are the results clearly, but concisely described? Do they relate to the topic outlined in the introduction? Do they follow a logical sequence? Does the discussion place the paper in scientific context and go a step beyond the current scientific knowledge on the basis of the results? Are competing hypotheses or theories reasonably related to each other and properly discussed? Do the conclusions seem reasonable?

      Previous research: Is previous research adequately incorporated into the paper? Are references complete, necessary and accurate? Is there any sign that substantial parts of the paper are copies of other works?


      Stepwise Description of the Peer Review Process

      1. This journal uses a single-blind peer review process. Notwithstanding with that, the reviewers are encouraged to disclose their identities, if they wish to do so. 

      2. The Reviewer receives a review request generated by the Subject Editor or the Editorial Office and is expected to either agree to provide a review, or decline, through pressing the Will do the review or Unable to do the review link in the online editorial system. In case the Reviewer agrees to review the manuscript, he/she should submit the review within a certain time frame, which may vary in the different journals.
        Note: The link to the respective manuscript is available in the review request email and all consequent reminder emails. The manuscript is accessible by clicking on the link in the email notification, or after login. Please look at the section How to Access a Manuscript above in case you have any difficulties.

      3. The review should be submitted through the Proceed button. The review should consist of (1) a simple online questionnaire to be answered by ticking either Yes, No, or N/A; (2) comments addressed to the Author and the Editor in the online form; (3) associated files (corrected/commented manuscript file, review submitted in a separate text file, etc.), if any.
        Note: Reviewers can insert corrections and comments in the manuscript review version (PDF) and/or in the manuscript text file (usually Microsoft WORD, rarely Open Office file). When working in the PDF, please use either the Text Edits or the Sticky Notes tools (available through the menu Tools -> Comments & Markup of the Acrobat Reader). When editing in Microsoft WORD please use the Track Changes / Comments tools.
        Note: Associated files should be submitted at the end of the review process by clicking on the Browse button, then selecting the respective file on your computer, and then pressing the Upload button. A reviewer may upload as many files to support his/her review as needed.

      4. The Reviewer may decide to stay anonymous or open his/her identity by ticking the Show my name to the author(s) box at the bottom of the reviewer’s form. Please be aware that your identity might be revealed in the comments or in Track Changes corrections of the Microsoft WORD or PDF file you correct. Therefore, please make sure that you delete your name and initials in the options section of your word or PDF processor, if you want to remain anonymous.

      5. The review process is completed by selecting a recommendation from five options: (1) Reject; (2) Reject, but resubmission encouraged; (3) Major Revision; (4) Minor Revision; (5) Accept. The system will ask for one more confirmation of the selected recommendation before submission. The submitted review cannot be changed after submission.
        Note: Reasons for rejection can be a low scientific quality, non-conformance to the journal’s style/policies, and/or grammatically poor English language.
        Note: It is also possible for review and associated files (e.g., a corrected manuscript file) to be sent as attached files to the email of the Editorial Office. We strongly recommend to avoid this option but to upload reviews through the online editorial management system.

      6. Once a Reviewer submits a review of a manuscript, he/she receives an acknowledgement email from the journal.

      7. The submission of the review is also automatically reported to Publons. Reviewers are asked to confirm whether they want their reviews to be recorded on Publons.

      8. When all Reviewers have submitted their reviews, the Subject Editor makes a decision to either accept, reject or request further minor/major revision.

      9. After Subject Editor's decision, the manuscript is sent back to the author for comments and further revision. The author needs to submit a revised version in due time.

      10. Reviewers are notified via email when the revised version of a manuscript they have reviewed is submitted by the author. They receive a link to the revised version along with the editorial decision and all reviews of the manuscript. Reviewers are also provided with a feedback form should they have any comments on the revised version. 

      11. When an article is published, all Reviewers who have provided a review for the respective manuscript receive an email acknowledgement. In the email, there is a link to view/download the published article.

      12. The Reviewer may always access information on the manuscripts that are being / have been reviewed by him/her through the menu My Tasks –> Reviewer on the journal’s web page – In Review (no.), In Edit (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.). The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that have been assigned to you.


      Science Communication

      Authors are welcome to join forces with Pensoft’s and ARPHA’s PR team to communicate and promote their research papers, thereby further increasing the visibility and impact of their work.

      While we use our journal’s social media channels (e.g. Twitter and Facebook) to post hand-crafted social media content for each article upon its publication, we offer a range of PR services in order to communicate especially significant scientific findings to a wider audience, such as: Custom social media content, Tailored PR campaign* and Guest blog post (details below).

      Please contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net to discuss the most suitable approach for your research. We look forward to hearing details about your study and why it should be considered of public interest.

      *The Tailored PR campaign is a paid service (for pricing, refer to Article Processing Charges -> Additional Services).

      However, we would be happy to consider discounts and even full waivers for studies of particular interest for science and society.

       

      Custom social media content (Free service)

      Authors are welcome to propose custom social media content to be distributed via the journal’s social media channels, regardless of whether they have already sought any other of our science communication services.

       Social media posts are expected to:

      • Be up to two sentences long or 280 characters (including links) for Twitter;

      • Be written in a conversational tone;

      • Contain minimal jargon;

      • Include the DOI link of the article;

      • Provide additional information about the study, which is not immediately evident in the text of the article (i.e. the post should not duplicate the title or the abstract);

      • Include attractive non-copyright imagery.

      To further increase the outreach of the posts, we strongly suggest that you also send us up to 10 social media accounts (e.g. co-authors, affiliations, funding bodies etc.), relevant to the study.

      Please note that our PR team reserves the right to edit your text at our discretion.

      To request our Custom social media content service, contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net.

       

      Tailored PR campaign (Paid service*)

      • Press release issued via the global science news service Eurekalert! and others (e.g. CORDIS), where appropriate;

      • News announcement personally advertised to our own contacts from the world’s top-tier news media;

      • News announcement disseminated via the journal’s and Pensoft’s social media channels;

      • Blog post issued on Pensoft’s blog (based on the announcement OR written by the author);

      • Additional social media content distributed via the journal’s and Pensoft’s channels;

      • Tracking and sharing of third-party users’ online content concerning the study.

      To ensure that we cover all key findings in our announcements, we encourage authors to prepare a brief press release draft using the template and guidelines provided.

      Please note that our PR team reserves the right to edit your text at our discretion. No press announcements will be issued until we receive the author’s final approval to do so. The Tailored PR campaign service is only available for studies published within the past 3 months.

      To request our Tailored PR campaign service, contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net. Alternatively, select the service upon submitting your manuscript and we will be in touch once your paper is accepted for publication.

      *For pricing, refer to Article Processing Charges -> Additional Services. Discounts and waivers for studies deemed of particular interest for science and society are available.

      #

      Examples

      Pensoft’s PR campaigns regularly make the headlines in top-tier media. Below, you can find examples associated with studies from across our journal portfolio:

        

      Guest blog post (Free service)

      • Blog post written by the author of the study and issued on Pensoft’s blog;

      • Blog post disseminated via the journal’s and Pensoft’s social media channels;

      • Additional social media content distributed via the journal’s and Pensoft’s channels;

      • Tracking and sharing of third-party users’ online content concerning the study.

      Blog post drafts are expected to:

      • Be written in free-text format;

      • Be written from the author’s own point of view, using conversational tone and minimal jargon;

      • Include at least one commentary quote from an author or a person relevant to the study;

      • Present some curious background information, meant to place the discovery in the right context;

      • Include attractive non-copyright imagery, featuring author attribution.

      Guest blog posts are not necessarily associated with studies published in a set time period, as long as their content remains relevant.

      Please note that our PR team reserves the right to edit your text at our discretion. No blog posts will be issued until we receive the author’s final approval to do so.

      To request our Guest blog post service, contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net.


      Data Publishing Guidelines

      Pensoft strongly encourages and supports various strategies and methods for data publication. The preferable way is to store data in internationally recognised data repositories and link back to the data set(s) in the respective article. Data can also be published as supplementary files to the articles, however this should be an exception rather than a rule (see How to publish data). The key to discover, use and cite your data is to include the data references in the reference lists of the articles and always include the DOIs of the data sets, when available, in the citation record. You may read more about this in How to cite data section of the article below. A good example of concise data citation guidelines using DOIs is also available on the GBIF website and on other data repositories.

      For biodiversity and biodiversity-related data the reader may consult the Strategies and guidelines for scholarly publishing of biodiversity data (Penev et al. 2017, Research Ideas and Outcomes 3: e12431. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.3.e12431). For reader's convenience, we list here the hyperlinked table of contents of these extensive guidelines:

      The core of the data publishing project of Pensoft is the concept of "Data Paper" developed in a cooperation with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Data Papers are peer-reviewed scholarly publications that describe the published datasets and provide an opportunity to data authors to receive the academic credit for their efforts. Currently, Pensoft offers the opportunity to publish Data Papers describing occurrence data and checklists, Barcode-of-Life genome data and biodiversity-related software tools, such as interactive keys and others.

      Examples of data papers

      ZooKeys:
      Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database
      A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan
      Project Description: DNA Barcodes of Bird Species in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, USA
      Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India
      MOSCHweb — a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera)
      Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition
      Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain
      FORMIDABEL: The Belgian Ants Database
      Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea)

      PhytoKeys:
      Florabank1: a grid-based database on vascular plant distribution in the northern part of Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital region)
      Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN): a community contributed taxonomic checklist of all vascular plants of Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Greenland
      Herbarium of Vascular Plants Collection of the University of Extremadura (Spain)

      Nature Conservation:
      Antarctic macrobenthic communities: A compilation of circumpolar information

      Press releases on data papers
      New incentive for biodiversity data publishing
      Data publishing policies and guidelines for biodiversity data by Pensoft
      First database-derived 'data paper' published in journal
      A new type of data papers designed to publish online interactive keys
      Data paper describes Antarctic biodiversity data gathered by 90 expeditions since 1956
      Unique information on Belgian ants compiled and published through FORMIDABEL data paper
      Database simplifies finding Canadian plant names and distribution
      A synthesis of the 36451 specimens from the UNEX Herbarium in a new data paper


      Data Quality Checklist and Recommendations

      INTRODUCTION

      An empowering aspect of digital data is that they can be merged, reformatted and reused for new, imaginative uses that are more than the sum of their parts. However, this is only possible if data are well curated. To help authors avoid some common mistakes we have created this document to highlight those aspects of data that should be checked before publication.

      By "mistakes" we do not mean errors of fact, although these should also be avoided! It is possible to have entirely correct digital data that are low-quality because they are badly structured or formatted, and, therefore, hard or impossible to move from one digital application to another. The next reader of your digital data is likely to be a computer program, not a human. It is essential that your data are structured and formatted so that they are easily processed by that program, and by other programs in the pipeline between you and the next human user of your data.

      The following list of recommendations will help you maximise the re-usability of your digital data. Each represents a test carried out by Pensoft when auditing a digital dataset at the request of an author. Following the list, we provide explanations and examples of each recommendation.

      Authors are encouraged to perform these checks themselves prior to data publication. For text data, a good text editor (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_text_editors) can be used to find and correct most problems. Spreadsheets usually have some functions for text checking functions, e.g. the "TRIM" function that removes unneeded whitespace from a data item. The most powerful text-checking tools are on the command line, and the website "A Data Cleaner's Cookbook" (https://www.polydesmida.info/cookbook/) is recommended for authors who can use a BASH shell.

      When auditing datasets for authors, Pensoft does not check taxonomic or bibliographic details for correctness, but we will do basic geochecks upon request, e.g. test to see if the stated locality is actually at or near the stated latitude/longitude. We also recommend checking that fields do not show "domain schizophrenia", i.e. fields misused to containing data of more than one type.

      Proofreading data takes at least as much time and skill as proofreading text. Just as with text, mistakes easily creep into data files unless the files are carefully checked. To avoid the embarrassment of publishing data with such mistakes, we strongly recommend that you take the time to run these basic tests on your data.


       

      CHECKLIST

       

      Characters

      - The dataset is UTF-8 encoded

      - The only characters used that are not numbers, letters or standard punctuation, are tabs and whitespaces

      - Each character has only one encoding in the dataset

      - No line breaks within data items

      - No field-separating character within data items (tab-separated data preferred)

      - No "?" or replacement characters in place of valid characters

      - No Windows carriage returns

      - No leading, trailing, duplicated or unnecessary whitespaces in individual data items

       

      Records

      - No broken records, i.e. records with too few or too many fields

      - No blank records

      - No duplicate records (as defined by context)

       

      Fields

      - No empty fields

      - No evident truncation of data items

      - No unmatched braces within data items

      - No data items with values that are evidently invalid or inappropriate for the given field

      - Repeated data items are consistently formatted

      - Standard data items such as dates and latitude/longitude are consistently formatted

      - No evident disagreement between fields

      - No unexpectedly missing data


       

      RECOMMENDATIONS

       

      Characters 

      • The dataset is UTF-8 encoded

      Computer programs do not "read" characters like "A" and "4". Instead, they read strings of 0's and 1's and interpret these strings as characters according to an encoding scheme. The most universal encoding scheme is called UTF-8 and is based on the character set called Unicode. Text data should always be shared with UTF-8 encoding, as errors can be generated when non-UTF-8 encodings (such as Windows-1252) are read by a program expecting UTF-8, and vice-versa. (See also below, on replacement characters). 

      • The only characters used that are not numbers, letters or standard punctuation are tabs and whitespaces

      Unusual characters sometimes appear in datasets, especially when databases have been merged. These "control" or "gremlin" characters are sometimes invisible when data are viewed within a particular application (such as a spreadsheet or a database browser) but can usually be revealed when the data are displayed in a text editor. Examples include vertical tab, soft hyphen, non-breaking space and various ASCII control characters (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_character).

      • Each character has only one encoding in the dataset

      We have seen individual datasets in which the degree symbol (°) is represented in three different ways, and in which a single quotation mark (') is also represented as a prime symbol, a right single quotation mark and a grave accent. Always use one form of each character, and preferably the simplest form, e.g. plain quotes rather than curly quotes.

      • No line breaks within data items

      Spreadsheet and database programs often allow users to have more than one line of text within a data item, separated by linebreaks or carriage returns. When these records are processed, many computer programs understand the embedded linebreak as the end of a record, so that the record is processed as several incomplete records:

      item A  itemB1          itemC

                     itemB2

      becomes:

      itemA           itemB1

      itemB2          itemC

      • No field-separating character within data items (tab-separated data preferred)

      Data are most often compiled in table form, with a particular character used to separate one field ("column") from the next. Depending on the computer program used, the field-separating character might be a comma (CSV files), a tab (TSV files), a semicolon, a pipe (|) etc.

      Well-structured data keeps the field-separating character out of data items, to avoid confusion in processing. Because commas are commonly present within data items, and because not all programs understand how to process CSVs, we recommend using tabs as field-separating characters (and avoiding tabs within data items!): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab-separated_values.

      • No "?" or replacement characters in place of valid characters

      When text data are moved between different character encodings, certain characters can be lost because the receiving program does not understand what the sending program is referring to. In most cases, the lost character is then represented by a question mark, as in "Duméril" becoming "Dum?ril", or by a replacement character, usually a dark polygon with a white question mark inside.

      It is important to check for these replacements before publishing data, especially if you converted your data to UTF-8 encoding from another encoding.

      • No Windows carriage returns

      On UNIX, Linux and Mac computers, a linebreak is built with just one character, the UNIX linefeed '\n' ('LF'). On Windows computers, a linebreak is created using two characters, one after the other: '\r\n' ('CRLF'), where '\r' is called a 'carriage return' ('CR'). Carriage returns are not necessary in digital data and can cause problems in data processing on non-Windows computers. Check the documentation of the program in which you are compiling data to learn how to remove Windows carriage returns.

      • No leading, trailing, duplicated or unnecessary whitespaces in individual data items

      Like "control" and "gremlin" characters, whitespaces are invisible and we pay little attention to them when reading a line of text. Computer programs, however, see whitespaces as characters with the same importance as "A" and "4". For this reason, the following four lines are different and should be edited to make them the same:

      Aus bus (Smith, 1900)

         Aus bus (Smith, 1900)

      Aus bus (Smith,   1900)

      Aus  bus   (Smith, 1900  )

       

      Records

      • No broken records, i.e. records with too few or too many fields

      If a data table contains records with, for example, 25 fields, then every record in the table should have exactly 25 data items, even if those items are empty. Records with too few fields are often the result of a linebreak or field separator within a data item (see above). Records with too many fields also sometimes appear when part of a record has been moved in a spreadsheet past the end of the table.

      • No blank records

      Blank records contribute nothing to a data table because they contain no information, and a tidy data table has no blank lines. Note, however, that a computer program looking for blank lines may not find what looks to a human like a blank line, because the "blank" line actually contains invisible tabs or whitespaces.

      • No duplicate records (as defined by context)

      It can be difficult to find duplicate records in some datasets, but our experience is that they are not uncommon. One cause of duplicates is database software assigning a unique ID number to the same line of data more than once. Context will determine whether one record is a duplicate of another, and data compilers are best qualified to look for them.

       

      Fields

      • No empty fields

       Fields containing no data items do not add anything to the information content of a dataset and should be omitted.

      •  No evident truncation of data items

      The end of a data item is sometimes cut off, for example when a data item with 55 characters is entered into a database field with a 50-character maximum limit. Truncated data items should be repaired when found, e.g.

      Smith & Jones in Smith, Jones and Bro

      repaired to:

      Smith & Jones in Smith, Jones and Brown, 1974

      • No unmatched braces within data items

      These are surprisingly common in datasets and are either data entry errors or truncations, e.g.

      Smith, A. (1900 A new species of Aus. Zool. Anz. 23: 660-667.

      5 km W of Traralgon (Vic

      • No data items with values that are evidently invalid or inappropriate for the given field

      For example, a field labelled "Year" and containing years should not contain the data item "3 males".

      •  Repeated data items are consistently formatted

      The same data item should not vary in format within a single dataset, e.g.

      Smith, A. (1900) A new species of Aus. Zool. Anz. 23: 660-667.

      Smith, A. 1900. A new species of Aus. Zoologischer Anzeiger 23: 660-667.

      Smith, A. (1900) A new species of Aus. Zool. Anz. 23, 660-667, pl. ix.

      • Standard data items such as dates and latitude/longitude are consistently formatted

      Data compilers have a number of choices when formatting standard data items, but whichever format is chosen, it should be used consistently. A single date field should not, for example, have dates represented as 2005-05-17, May 19, 2005 and 23.v.2005.

      • No evident disagreement between fields

      If there are fields which contain linked information then these fields should be checked to ensure that they do not conflict with each other. For example, the year or an observation cannot be after the year it was published.

      Examples:

      Year            Citation

      1968            Smith, A. (1966) Polychaete anatomy. Academic Press, New York; 396 pp.

       

      Genus           Subgenus

      Aus             Bus (Aus)

      • No unexpectedly missing data

      This is a rare issue in datasets that have been audited, but occasionally occurs. An example is the Darwin Core "verbatimLocality" field for a record containing a full latitude and longitude, but with the "decimalLatitude" and "decimalLongitude" fields blank.

      • Spelling of Darwin Core terms

      Darwin Core terms are usually considered case sensitive, therefore you should use their correct spelling (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/).

       

      We thank Dr. Robert Mesibov for preparing the Data Quality Checklist draft and Dr. Quentin Groom for reviewing it.


      Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

      General

      The publishing ethics and malpractice policies follow the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA), the NISO Recommended Practices for the Presentation and Identification of E-Journals (PIE-J), and, where relevant, the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals from ICMJE.

      Privacy statement

      The personal information used on this website is to be used exclusively for the stated purposes of each particular journal. It will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party. 

      Open access

      Pensoft and ARPHA-hosted journals adhere strictly to gold open access to accelerate the barrier-free dissemination of scientific knowledge. All published articles are made freely available to read, download, and distribute immediately upon publication, given that the original source and authors are cited (Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)).

      Open data publishing and sharing

      Pensoft and ARPHA encourage open data publication and sharing, in accordance with Panton’s Principles and FAIR Data Principles. For the domain of biodiversity-related publications Pensoft has specially developed extended Data Publishing Policies and Guidelines for Biodiversity Data. Specific data publishing guidelines are available on the journal website. 

      Data can be published in various ways, such as preservation in data repositories linked to the respective article or as data files or packages supplementary to the article. Datasets should be deposited in an appropriate, trusted repository and the associated identifier (URL or DOI) of the dataset(s) must be included in the data resources section of the article. Reference(s) to datasets should also be included in the reference list of the article with DOIs (where available). Where no discipline-specific data repository exists authors should deposit their datasets in a general repository such as, for example Zenodo or others. 

      Submission, peer review and editorial process

      The peer review and editorial processes are facilitated through an online editorial system and a set of email notifications. Pensoft journals’ websites display stepwise description of the editorial process and list all necessary instructions and links. These links are also included in the respective email notification.

      General: Publication and authorship

      • All submitted papers are subject to a rigorous peer review process by at least two international reviewers who are experts in the scientific field of the particular paper. 

      • The factors that are taken into account in review are relevance, soundness, significance, originality, readability and language. 

      • The journals allow a maximum of two rounds of review of a manuscript. The ultimate responsibility for editorial decisions lies with the respective Subject Editor and, in some cases, with the Editor-in-Chief. All appeals should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief, who may decide to seek advice among the Subject Editors and Reviewers.

      • The possible decisions include: (1) Accept, (2) Minor revisions, (2) Major revisions, (3) Reject, but re-submission encouraged and (5) Reject. 

      • If Authors are encouraged to revise and re-submit a submission, there is no guarantee that the revised submission will be accepted. 

      • The paper acceptance is constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. 

      • No research can be included in more than one publication.

      Responsibility of Authors

      • Authors are required to agree that their paper will be published in open access under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) license.

      • Authors must certify that their manuscripts are their original work. 

      • Authors must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere. 

      • Authors must certify that the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere. 

      • Authors should submit the manuscript in linguistically and grammatically correct English and formatted in accordance with the journal’s Author Guidelines.

      • Authors must participate in the peer review process. 

      • Authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes. 

      • All Authors mentioned are expected to have significantly contributed to the research. 

      • Authors must notify the Editors of any conflicts of interest. 

      • Authors must identify all sources used in the creation of their manuscript. 

      • Authors must report any errors they discover in their published paper to the Editors.

      • Authors should acknowledge all significant funders of the research pertaining to their article and list all relevant competing interests.   

      • Other sources of support for publications should also be clearly identified in the manuscript, usually in an acknowledgement (e.g. funding for the article processing charge; language editing or editorial assistance).

      • The Corresponding author should provide the declaration of any conflicts of interest on behalf of all Authors. Conflicts of interest may be associated with employment, sources of funding, personal financial interests, membership of relevant organisations or others.

      Responsibility of Reviewers

      • The manuscripts will be reviewed by two or three experts in order to reach first decision as soon as possible. Reviewers do not need to sign their reports but are welcome to do so. They are also asked to declare any conflicts of interests.

      • Reviewers are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but to focus on its scientific quality, as well as for the overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. If Reviewers recognize that a manuscript requires linguistic edits, they should inform both Authors and Editor in the report.

      • Reviewers are asked to check whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, how interesting it is and whether the quality of the writing is acceptable.

      • In cases of strong disagreement between the reviews or between the Authors and Reviewers, the Editors can judge these according to their expertise or seek advice from a member of the journal's Editorial Board.

      • Reviewers are also asked to indicate which articles they consider to be especially interesting or significant. These articles may be given greater prominence and greater external publicity, including press releases addressed to science journalists and mass media.

      • During a second review round, the Reviewer may be asked by the Subject Editor to evaluate the revised version of the manuscript with regards to Reviewer’s recommendations submitted during the first review round.

      • Reviewers are asked to be polite and constructive in their reports. Reports that may be insulting or uninformative will be rescinded.

      • Reviewers are asked to start their report with a very brief summary of the reviewed paper. This will help the Editors and Authors see whether the reviewer correctly understood the paper or whether a report might be based on misunderstanding.

      • Further, Reviewers are asked to comment on originality, structure and previous research: (1) Is the paper sufficiently novel and does it contribute to a better understanding of the topic under scrutiny? Is the work rather confirmatory and repetitive? (2) Is the introduction clear and concise? Does it place the work into the context that is necessary for a reader to comprehend the aims, hypotheses tested, experimental design or methods? Are Material and Methods clearly described and sufficiently explained? Are reasons given when choosing one method over another one from a set of comparable methods? Are the results clearly but concisely described? Do they relate to the topic outlined in the introduction? Do they follow a logical sequence? Does the discussion place the paper in scientific context and go a step beyond the current scientific knowledge on the basis of the results? Are competing hypotheses or theories reasonably related to each other and properly discussed? Do conclusions seem reasonable?  Is previous research adequately incorporated into the paper? Are references complete, necessary and accurate? Is there any sign that substantial parts of the paper were copies of other works?

      • Reviewers should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

      • Reviewers should keep all information regarding papers confidential and treat them as privileged information. 

      • Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments. 

      • Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors.

      • Reviewers should also call to the Editors’ attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

      Responsibility of Editors

      • Editors in Pensoft’s journals carry the main responsibility for the scientific quality of the published papers and base their decisions solely on the papers' importance, originality, clarity and relevance to publication's scope.

      • The Subject Editor takes the final decision on a manuscript’s acceptance or rejection and his/her name is listed as "Academic Editor" in the header of each article.

      • The Subject Editors are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but to focus on its scientific quality, as well as the overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. 

      • Editors are expected to spot small errors in orthography or stylistic during the editing process and correct them.

      • Editors should always consider the needs of the Authors and the Readers when attempting to improve the publication. 

      • Editors should guarantee the quality of the papers and the integrity of the academic record. 

      • Editors should preserve the anonymity of Reviewers, unless the later decide to disclose their identities. 

      • Editors should ensure that all research material they publish conforms to internationally accepted ethical guidelines. 

      • Editors should act if they suspect misconduct and make all reasonable attempts to obtain a resolution to the problem. 

      • Editors should not reject papers based on suspicions, they should have proof of misconduct.

      • Editors should not allow any conflicts of interest between Authors, Reviewers and Board Members.

      Human and animal rights

      The ethical standards in medical and pharmacological studies are based on the Helsinki declaration (1964, amended in 1975, 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2000) of the World Medical Association and the Publication Ethics Policies for Medical Journals of the World Association of Medical Journals (WAME).

      Authors of studies including experiments on humans or human tissues should declare in their cover letter a compliance with the ethical standards of the respective institutional or regional committee on human experimentation and attach committee’s statement and informed consent; for those researchers who do not have access to formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed and declared in the cover letter. Patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers should not be used, not in the text nor in any illustrative material, tables of databases, unless the author presents a written permission from each patient to use his or her personal data. Photos or videos of patients should be taken after a warning and agreement of the patient or of a legal authority acting on his or her behalf.

      Animal experiments require full compliance with local, national, ethical, and regulatory principles, and local licensing arrangements and respective statements of compliance (or approvals of institutional ethical committees where such exists) should be included in the article text.

      Informed consent

      Individual participants in studies have the right to decide what happens to the identifiable personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.

      The following statement should be included in the article text in one of the following ways:

      • "Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study."

      • "Informed consent was obtained from all individuals for whom identifying information is included in this article." (In case some patients’ data have been published in the article or supplementary materials to it).

      Conflict of interest

      During the editorial process, the following relationships between editors and authors are considered conflicts of interest: Current colleagues, recent colleagues, recent co-authors, and doctoral students for which editor served as committee chair. During the submission process, the authors are kindly advised to identify possible conflicts of interest with the journal editors. After manuscripts are assigned to the handling editor, individual editors are required to inform the managing editor of any possble conflicts of interest with the authors. Journal submissions are also assigned to referees to minimize conflicts of interest. After manuscripts are assigned for review, referees are asked to inform the editor of any conflicts that may exist.

      Appeals and open debate

      We encourage academic debate and constructive criticism. Authors are always invited to respond to any editorial correspondence before publication. Authors are not allowed to neglect unfavorable comments about their work and choose not to respond to criticisms. 

      No Reviewer’s comment or published correspondence may contain a personal attack on any of the Authors. Criticism of the work is encouraged. Editors should edit (or reject) personal or offensive statements. Authors should submit their appeal on editorial decisions to the Editorial Office, addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or to the Managing Editor. Authors are discouraged from directly contacting Editorial Board Members and Editors with appeals.

      Editors will mediate all discussions between Authors and Reviewers during the peer review process prior to publication. If agreement cannot be reached, Editors may consider inviting additional reviewers if appropriate. 

      The Editor-in-Chief will mediate all discussions between Authors and Subject Editors.

      The journals encourage publication of open opinions, forum papers, corrigenda, critical comments on a published paper and Author’s response to criticism.

      Misconduct

      Research misconduct may include: (a)  manipulating research materials, equipment or processes; (b) changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the article; c) plagiarism. Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion. If misconduct is suspected, journal Editors will act in accordance with the relevant COPE guidelines.

      Plagiarism and duplicate publication policy
      A special case of misconduct is plagiarism, which is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results or words without giving appropriate credit. Plagiarism is considered theft of intellectual property and manuscripts submitted to this journal which contain substantial unattributed textual copying from other papers will be immediately rejected. Editors are advised to check manuscripts for plagiarism via the iThenticate service by clicking on the "ïThenticate report" button. Journal providing a peer review in languages other than English (for example, Russian) may use other plagiarism checking services (for example, Antiplagiat). 
      Instances, when authors re-use large parts of their publications without providing a clear reference to the original source, are considered duplication of work. Slightly changed published works submitted in multiple journals is not acceptable practice either. In cases of plagiarism in an already published paper or duplicate publication, an announcement will be made on the journal publication page and a procedure of retraction will be triggered.

      Responses to possible misconduct

      All allegations of misconduct must be referred to the Editor-In-Chief. Upon the thorough examination, the Editor-In-Chief and deputy editors should conclude if the case concerns a possibility of misconduct. All allegations should be kept confidential and references to the matter in writing should be kept anonymous, whenever possible.

      Should a comment on potential misconduct be submitted by the Reviewers or Editors, an explanation will be sought from the Authors. If it is satisfactory and the issue is the result of either a mistake or misunderstanding, the matter can be easily resolved. If not, the manuscript will be rejected or retracted and the Editors may impose a ban on that individual's publication in the journals for a certain period of time. In cases of published plagiarism or dual publication, an announcement will be made in both journals explaining the situation.

      When allegations concern authors, the peer review and publication process for their submission will be halted until completion of the aforementioned process. The investigation will be carried out even if the authors withdraw the manuscript, and implementation of the responses below will be considered.

      When allegations concern reviewers or editors, they will be replaced in the review process during the ongoing investigation of the matter. Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct should be removed from further association with the journal, and this fact reported to their institution.

      Retraction policies

      Article retraction

      According to the COPE Retraction Guidelines followed by this Journal, an article can be retracted because of the following reasons:

      • Unreliable findings based on clear evidence of a misconduct (e.g. fraudulent use of the data) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
      • Redundant publication, e.g., findings that have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification.
      • Plagiarism or other kind of unethical research.

      Retraction procedure

      • Retraction should happen after a careful consideration by the Journal editors of allegations coming from the editors, authors, or readers.
      • The HTML version of the retracted article is removed (except for the article metadata) and on its place a retraction note is issued.
      • The PDF of the retracted article is left on the website but clearly watermarked with the note "Retracted" on each page.
      • In some rare cases (e.g., for legal reasons or health risk) the retracted article can be replaced with a new corrected version containing apparent link to the retracted original version and a retraction note with a history of the document.

      Expression of concern

      In other cases, the Journal editors should consider issuing an expression of concern, if evidence is available for:

      • Inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors.
      • Unreliable findings that are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case.
      • A belief that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
      • An investigation is underway but a judgement will not be available for a considerable time.

      Correction

      Journal editors should consider issuing a correction if:

      • A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error).
      • The author / contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).
      • Other reasons that do not qualify as a sound evidence for retraction or expression of concern.

      Benefits for Editors and Reviewers

      Pensoft editors and reviewers are entitled to a set of benefits in appreciation for their contribution to the quality of the works we publish.

        For Editors   For Reviewers
      • 15% unconditional discount on APCs and reprints for the journal in which you are an editor
      • 10% unconditional discount on
        • APCs in all other Pensoft journals
        • All books published by Pensoft
        • Article reprints for all other Pensoft journals
        • Dedicated PR campaigns
      • Special conditions for publication of large works or articles that need customized technical solutions
      • 15% discount on APCs for the journal in which the review was provided
        • Valid for one manuscript per review, submitted within 6 months of the review, where the reviewer is the lead author
      • Automated registration of reviews at Publons after confirmation by the reviewer
      • Open reviews are provided with DOIs and citation details

      * When an individual qualifies for multiple discounts Pensoft will use the largest that applies

        Apply to become an editor via Editor Application Form

      Terms of Use

      This document describes the Terms of Use of the services provided by the African Invertebrates journal, hereinafter referred to as "the Journal" or "this Journal". All Users agree to these Terms of Use when signing up to this Journal. Signed Journal Users will be hereinafter referred to as "User" or "Users".

      The publication services to the Journal are provided by Pensoft Publishers Ltd., through its publishing platform ARPHA, hereinafter referred to as "the Provider".

      The Provider reserves the right to update the Terms of Use occasionally. Users will be notified via posting on the site and/or by email. If using the services of the Journal after such notice, the User will be deemed to have accepted the proposed modifications. If the User disagrees with the modifications, he/she should stop using the Journal services. Users are advised to periodically check the Terms of Use for updates or revisions. Violation of any of the terms will result in the termination of the User's account. The Provider is not responsible for any content posted by the User in the Journal.

      Account Terms

      1. For registration in this Journal or any of the services or tools hosted on it, Users must provide their full legal name, a valid email address, postal address, affiliation (if any),  and any other information requested.
      2. Accounts created via this journal automatically sign in the User to the ARPHA Platform.
      3. Users are responsible for maintaining the security of their account and password. The Journal cannot and will not be liable for any loss or damage from failure to comply with this security obligation.
      4. Users are solely responsible for the content posted via the Journal services (including, but not limited to data, text, files, information, usernames, images, graphics, photos, profiles, audio and video clips, sounds, applications, links and other content) and all activities that occur under their account.
      5. Users may not use the service for any illegal or unauthorised purpose. Users must not, in the use of the service, violate any laws within their jurisdiction (including but not limited to copyright or trademark laws).
      6. Users can change or pseudonomyse their personal data, or deactivate their accounts at any time through the functionality available in the User’s personal profile. Deactivation or pseudonomysation will not affect the appearance of personal data in association with an already published work of which the User is author, co-author, editor, or reviewer.
      7. Users can report to the Journal uses of their personal data, that they might consider not corresponding to the current Terms of Use.
      8. The User’s personal data is processed by the Journal on the legal basis corresponding to Article 6, paragraph 1, letters a, b, c and f. of the General Data Protection Regulation (hereinafter referred to as GDPR) and will be used for the purpose of Journal’s services in accordance with the present Terms and Use, as well as in those cases expressly stated by the legislation.
      9. User’s consent to use the information the Journal has collected about the User corresponds to Article 6(1)(a) of the GDPR.
      10. The ‘legitimate interest’ of the Journal to engage with the User and enable him/her to participate in Journal’s activities and use Journal’s services correspond to Article 6(1)(f) of the GDPR.

      Services and Prices

      The Provider reserves the right to modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, the services provided by the Journal. Plans and prices are subject to change upon 30 days notice from the Provider. Such notice may be provided at any time by posting the changes to the relevant service website.

      Ownership

      The Authors retain full ownership to their content published in the Journal. We claim no intellectual property rights over the material provided by any User in this Journal. However, by setting pages to be viewed publicly (Open Access), the User agrees to allow others to view and download the relevant content. In addition, Open Access articles might be used by the Provider, or any other third party, for data mining purposes.

      The Provider reserves the rights in its sole discretion to refuse or remove any content that is available via the Website.

      Copyrighted Materials

      Unless stated otherwise, the Journal website may contain some copyrighted material (for example, logos and other proprietary information, including, without limitation, text, software, photos, video, graphics, music and sound - "Copyrighted Material"). The User may not copy, modify, alter, publish, transmit, distribute, display, participate in the transfer or sale, create derivative works or, in any way, exploit any of the Copyrighted Material, in whole or in part, without written permission from the copyright owner. Users will be solely liable for any damage resulting from any infringement of copyrights, proprietary rights or any other harm resulting from such a submission.

      Exceptions from this rule are e-chapters or e-articles published under Open Access (see below), which are normally published under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license (CC-BY), or Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (CC-BY), or Creative Commons Public Domain license (CC0).

      Open Access Materials

      This Journal is a supporter of open science. Open access to content is clearly marked, with text and/or the open access logo, on all materials published under this model. Unless otherwise stated, open access content is published in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence (CC-BY). This particular licence allows the copying, displaying and distribution of the content at no charge, provided that the author and source are credited.

      Privacy Statement

      1. Users agree to submit their personal data to this Journal, hosted on the ARPHA Platform provided by Pensoft.
      2. The Journal collects personal information from Users (e.g., name, postal and email addresses, affiliation) only for the purpose of its services.
      3. All personal data will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of the website and will not be made available for any other purpose or to third parties.
      4. In the case of co-authorship of a work published through the Journal services, each of the co-authors states that they agree that their personal data be collected, stored and used by the Journal.
      5. In the case of co-authorship, each of the co-authors agrees that their personal data publicly available in the form of a co-authorship of a published work, can be distributed to external indexing services and aggregators for the purpose of the widest possible distribution of the work they co-author.
      6. When one of the co-authors is not registered in the Journal, it is presumed that the corresponding author who is registered has requested and obtained his/her consent that his/her personal data will be collected, stored and used by the Journal.
      7. The registered co-author undertakes to provide an e-mail address of the unregistered author, to whom the Journal will send a message in order to give the unregistered co-author’s explicit consent for the processing of his/her personal data by the Journal.
      8. The Journal is not responsible if the provided e-mail of the unregistered co-author is inaccurate or invalid. In such cases, it is assumed that the processing of the personal data of the unregistered co-author is done on a legal basis and with a given consent.
      9. The Journal undertakes to collect, store and use the provided personal data of third parties (including but not limited to unregistered co-authors) solely for the purposes of the website, as well as in those cases expressly stated by the legislation.
      10. Users can receive emails from Journal and its hosting platform ARPHA, provided by Pensoft, about activities they have given their consent for. Examples of such activities are:
        • Email notifications to authors, reviewers and editors who are engaged with authoring, reviewing or editing a manuscript submitted to the Journal.
        • Email alerts sent via email subscription service, which can happen only if the User has willingly subscribed for such a service. Unsubscription from the service can happen through a one-click link provided in each email alert notification.
        • Information emails on important changes in the system or in its Terms of Use which are sent via Mailchimp are provided with "Unsubscribe" function.
      11. Registered users can be invited to provide a peer review on manuscripts submitted to the Journal. In such cases, the users can decline the review invitation through a link available on the journal’s website.
      12. Each provided peer review can be registered with external services (such as Publons). The reviewer will be notified if such registration is going to occur and can decline the registration process.
      13. In case the Journal starts using personal data for purposes other than those specified in the Terms of Use, the Journal undertakes to immediately inform the person and request his/her consent.
      14. If the person does not give his/her consent to the processing of his or her personal data pursuant to the preceding paragraph, the Journal shall cease the processing of the personal data for the purposes for which there is no consent, unless there is another legal basis for the processing.
      15. Users can change/correct their personal data anytime via the functionality available in the User’s profile. Users can request the Journal to correct their personal data if the data is inaccurate or outdated and the Journal is obliged to correct the inaccurate or outdated personal data in a timely manner.
      16. Users may request the Journal to restrict the use of their personal data insofar as this limitation is not contrary to the law or the Terms of Use.
      17. Users may request their personal data to be deleted (the right to be forgotten) by the Journal, provided that the deletion does not conflict with the law or the Terms of Use.
      18. The User has the right to be informed:
        • whether his or her personal data have been processed;
        • for which purposes the Journal processes the personal data;
        • the ways in which his/her personal data are processed;
        • the types of personal data that Journal processes.
      19. The user undertakes not to interfere with and impede the Journal’s activities in the exercise of the provided rights.
      20. In case of non-fulfillment under the previous paragraph, the Journal reserves the right to delete the user's profile.

      Disclaimer of Warranty and Limitation of Liability

      Neither Pensoft and its affiliates nor any of their respective employees, agents, third party content providers or licensors warrant that the Journal service will be uninterrupted or error-free; nor do they give any warranty as to the results that may be obtained from use of the journal, or as to the accuracy or reliability of any information, service or merchandise provided through Journal.

      Legal, medical, and health-related information located, identified or obtained through the use of the Service, is provided for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for qualified advice from a professional.

      In no event will the Provider, or any person or entity involved in creating, producing or distributing Journal or the contents included therein, be liable in contract, in tort (including for its own negligence) or under any other legal theory (including strict liability) for any damages, including, but without limitation to, direct, indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages, including, but without limitation to, lost profits or revenues, loss of use or similar economic loss, arising from the use of or inability to use the journal platform. The User hereby acknowledges that the provisions of this section will apply to all use of the content on Journal. Applicable law may not allow the limitation or exclusion of liability or incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to the User. In no event will Pensoft’s total liability to the User for all damages, losses or causes of action, whether in contract, tort (including own negligence) or under any other legal theory (including strict liability), exceed the amount paid by the User, if any, for accessing Journal.

      Third Party Content

      The Provider is solely a distributor (and not a publisher) of SOME of the content supplied by third parties and Users of the Journal. Any opinions, advice, statements, services, offers, or other information or content expressed or made available by third parties, including information providers and Users, are those of the respective author(s) or distributor(s) and not of the Provider.