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Insights into 260 years of taxonomic research gained from the Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees
expand article infoWillem Coetzer, Connal Eardley§
‡ South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, Grahamstown, South Africa
§ University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Open Access

Abstract

We analysed country-scale distribution records of solitary bees (i.e. excluding Apis mellifera) in countries in the Afrotropical Region, excluding the southern Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. Although different country estimates of bee species numbers can be explained by differences in climate, vegetation or topography, we concluded that the observed differences are mainly due to differences in sampling effort or taxonomic research intensity in different countries. We characterised three eras of bee taxonomy. The highest rate of species description per annum occurred during the first half of the 20th Century, before generic revisions were prevalent, and when the focus was on consolidating knowledge and developing identification keys. We also researched the locations of type specimens, which included all primary types and syntypes. Most types are housed in western Europe. We describe the Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees (CAB), a biodiversity information system and related GBIF checklist that is the system’s standardised, published output. In the revised CAB, all Afrotropical bee genera have been given common names, many of which are new.

Keywords

Apoidea, taxonomy, biodiversity informatics, natural history collections, specimens, Afrotropical Region

Introduction

We describe research strengths and gaps in the taxonomy of non-Apis bees (‘bees’) across most of the Afrotropical Region. We used data extracted from the Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees (CAB) that had been digitised from species descriptions. The work reported below is an example of how data from natural history collections can be transformed into useful biodiversity information that may be applied in different research contexts.

Development of the CAB as a biodiversity information system

The CAB was developed to represent rich, species-level data about Afrotropical bees found in literature. The basic unit of information is a taxon citation, meaning that the CAB is a page-level index of scientific literature on Afrotropical bees, most of which is the output of 260 years of taxonomic research. The CAB is updated regularly and will be useful for future taxonomic research, studies in pollination ecology in the Afrotropical Region or in any research that depends on bee taxonomy.

An important purpose of data published on the GBIF Data Portal from the CAB is to validate bee names and integrate specimen-records from distributed databases (e.g. to relate junior synonyms to senior synonyms). Integrating online data is a major challenge in biodiversity informatics (Jetz et al. 2012).

Specific use-cases of the online CAB, which make it a basic starting point for bee research in any context, include: finding the valid name corresponding to any junior synonym or understanding the nomenclatorial history of any species; generating a list of countries in which a bee species has been recorded or a list of bee species from a given country; generating a list of pages in research articles on which a bee name is cited; finding the type depositories and details of the type designation of bee type specimens; finding the host-plants, nest-plants, parasites or hosts of bee species for which this information was found in literature; finding the common names of Afrotropical bee genera, which were recently added to the CAB.

Objectives

We queried the CAB to analyse and summarise the number of bee species recorded from each country in the Afrotropical Region, mainly to test whether knowledge of the country-scale distribution of bees is lacking. Data from the CAB were supplemented with specimen-records downloaded from the GBIF Data Portal.

We summarised the main periods of research in Afrotropical bee taxonomy and the taxonomic contributions of the main contributors, to try to explain the knowledge gaps we found in the observed country-scale distribution of bees.

We also summarised knowledge of bee type depositories.

In biodiversity informatics our objectives were:

1. To promote awareness of the CAB in the scientific community and explain its development and potential uses;

2. To promote the general need to mobilise (publish or share) high-quality, standardised species-level data, including rich taxonomic data and rich ecological data such as host relationships, which can potentially be used in ecological studies (e.g. pollination studies).

Material and methods

The CAB consists of a customised Specify biodiversity database (Specify Software 2019), for data storage, and a linked Microsoft Access file for queries and automated routines to analyse and summarise the data in the Specify database.

Literature references and bee names had been written on index cards for many years before data capture switched to a digital document. The data from the document were eventually migrated to the Specify database prior to publication of the Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees (Eardley and Urban 2010). During the migration process, the data were extensively cleaned, resulting in a much improved version of the CAB. The Specify database is now used to update the CAB by cataloguing new records of taxon descriptions, nomenclatorial acts, taxonomic acts, authors, articles, country records and ecological information.

VBA scripts in the Microsoft Access file were used to transform nomenclatorial acts and other data (e.g. synonymies, ecological relationships and references to countries, articles and authors), captured as raw data in the Specify database, into an annotated checklist-type Darwin Core Archive. The Darwin Core Archive is a set of text files that express concepts named by standardised terms (Biodiversity Information Standards 2019). The Darwin Core Archive was published on the GBIF Data Portal via an Integrated Publishing Toolkit server. We followed the GBIF best-practice guidelines to publish checklists (Remsen et al. 2010). The CAB is accessible by the following hyperlink: https://www.gbif.org/dataset/da38f103-4410-43d1-b716-ea6b1b92bbac

To find country records of Afrotropical bees other than those of the CAB, we searched the GBIF Data Portal for records of the 6 families of Apoidea. We assumed that specimens represented by downloaded GBIF records had been correctly identified.

Results and discussion

Information system development

A significant finding in developing and using the CAB (Figure 1) is that we were able to represent meaningful units of taxonomic research, specifically a citation of a taxon on a page and the specific taxonomic meaning of this citation (e.g. whether it was of nomenclatorial importance and what kind of nomenclatorial act it signified). It was also significant that we were able to customise a Specify database for the purpose of creating a richly annotated checklist of species for publication, both as standardised online data as well as a textual report for conventional publication. The advantage of the textual report is that it can be formatted to show the nomenclatorial history of the species, i.e. to update the checklist of Eardley and Urban 2010 at the click of a button.

Figure 1. 

Part of a typical CAB species page showing basic taxonomic information, including the original name and description article, as well as the senior synonym. The standardised metadata terms, constituting the ‘dictionary’ of biodiversity concepts, are visible on the left.

By representing nomenclatorial acts (e.g. an original description or a new combination) and taxonomic acts (e.g. a synonymy or a change in taxonomic rank) – as records in the Specify taxoncitation table – we were able to execute a query to summarise all the taxonomic work that has been done since the previous publication of the CAB almost a decade ago (Table 1). A list of species descriptions published since 2010 is given in Appendix 1 and a list of species synonymised or removed from synonymy since 2010 is given in Appendix 2. Taxonomists should find this summarising capability of such a database design useful in their work, especially in compiling a regional, richly annotated checklist of species.

A summary of the nomenclatorial and taxonomic acts published in taxonomic articles since 2010.

Year New combination Corrected name Invalid name New name Rank change: species to subspecies Rank change: subspecies to species Rank change: subgenus to genus Valid description Synonymy Removal from synonymy
2010 36 91 1 4 29 11
2011 17 1 3 10
2012 2 23 60
2013 2 1 8 102
2014 8 1 1 70 48
2015 7 2
2016 1 6 5 2
2017 1 3 1
2018 1 1 5 7
Total 67 92 1 2 5 31 6 135 228 4

Digitally available knowledge of Afrotropical bees

Of the 1.03 million GBIF specimen-records of bees tagged with country names that we downloaded, only 39 176 (3.8%) were from countries in the Afrotropical Region (Table 2). Specimen-records downloaded from the GBIF Data Portal therefore made a small contribution to the dataset that we used in the analysis presented below.

The numbers of African bee specimen-records (containing the country name) published on the GBIF Data Portal by various institutions.

Publishing institution Number of records
South African National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, South Africa 16 282
Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa 10 671
Kansas University, Lawrence, USA 8 967
Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa 1 567
Durban Natural Science Museum, Durban, South Africa 917
Unknown 296
iNaturalist 269
Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa 129
US Department of Agriculture 63
C.A. Triplehorn Insect Collection, Columbus, USA 4
Lund University, Lund, Sweden 3
Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France 3
National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA 2
Natural History Museum, London, UK 2
www.naturgucker.info 1
Total 39 176

Country-scale distribution

The analysis of country-scale distribution presented below is for valid species-level names only (i.e. not including junior synonyms or subspecies). We included species described up to and including 2018.

Records of bees other than Apis mellifera have been reported from 45 of the 47 African countries or territories constituting the Afrotropical Region as defined by Crosskey and White (1977) (i.e. not from Mayotte nor Guinea-Bissau). The CAB reported 2 783 valid species from the Afrotropical Region. The following introduced species were included in the analysis: Hylaeus perhumilis (South Africa), Megachile semivestita (Zanzibar) and Megachile multidens (Democratic Republic of Congo).

The countries of origin of the following 7 valid species remain unknown and they were therefore not included in the country counts: Thyreus calcaratus, Xylocopa ditypa, Halictus frontalis, Lipotriches quartinae, Megachile mastrucatella, Megachile mediana and Heriades glomerans.

i) Species-per-country

The 2 776 species with country records were expanded to 7 196 species-per-country combinations. The number of species-per-country records (a potential indication of species richness) ranged from 4 (São Tomé and Príncipe) to 1258 (South Africa, 65 of which were contributed by the GBIF dataset) (Table 3).The GBIF specimen-records added 382 new species-per-country records (combinations of 242 species and 33 countries – see Appendix 3), representing 5% of the data overall. The GBIF country records that agreed with those from the CAB numbered 1 312 or 19% of the total species-per-country records, which again underscores the importance of the CAB country-scale distribution data.

The numbers of species-per-country records and the numbers and proportions of species recorded, stratified into country groups.

Country Number of species-per-country records Total species-per-country records (%) Number of species represented (%)
South Africa 1258 1258 (17.5) 1258 (45)
Democratic Republic of Congo 640 640 (8.9) 640 (23)
Zimbabwe 429 429 (6) 429 (15)
3 countries with > 300 species < 400 Tanzania (389), Kenya (387), Namibia (367) Total 1143 (15.9) 425 (15)
5 countries with > 200 species < 300 Malawi (268), Uganda (241), Madagascar (236), Ethiopia (231), Cameroon (229) Total 1205 (16.7) 518 (19)
11 countries with > 100 species < 200 Mozambique (199), Gabon (177), Nigeria (176), Zambia (164), Angola (157), Botswana (149), Senegal (128),Sudan (114), Liberia (106), Republic of the Congo (105), Ghana (101) Total 1576 (21.9) 369 (13)
19 countries with > 10 species < 100 Somalia (92), Sierra Leone (88), Equatorial Guinea (87), Togo (69), Guinea (60), Lesotho (58), Burundi (52), Ivory Coast (51), Niger (47), Gambia (46), Rwanda (45), Burkina Faso (43), Central African Republic (43), Eritrea (36), Chad (31), Benin (23), Seychelles (18), Eswatini (15), Comoros (12) Total 916 (12.7) 216 (8)
4 countries with > 1 species < 10 Djibouti (9), Mauritius (9), Réunion (7), São Tomé and Príncipe (4) Total 29 (0.4) 10 (0.3)
Total 7196 (100) 2 776

Thirty-four of the 45 countries (76%) had fewer than 200 species (or 7% of Afrotropical species) per country (Table 3). The most species-rich country (South Africa, with 1258 species or 45% of Afrotropical species) had almost twice as many species as the country in second place (Democratic Republic of the Congo, with 640 species or 23% of Afrotropical species) (Table 3). In terms of the percentage of species-per-country records, South Africa had more records than each of the country groups that included 3, 5 and 19 countries, and almost as many as the group containing 11 countries. These observations support the conclusion that knowledge of the country-scale distribution of bees is lacking.

There are other online sources of taxonomic data or species-level information about Afrotropical bees (Atlas Hymenoptera 2019, Discover Life 2019). Discover Life reports 1 161 species of bees in South Africa, 610 species in the Democratic Republic of Congo and 400 species in Zimbabwe. These numbers are close to our numbers in Table 3 (not including the 65 species records counted for South Africa that were found on the GBIF Data Portal rather than in published literature).

ii) Countries-per-species

Frequencies of the numbers of countries in which bee species have been recorded had a skewed distribution, with 62% of species occurring in only one country and a further 14% occurring in only two countries (Figure 2 and Table 4). Rather than indicating endemism, we interpreted this as support for the conclusion that country-scale knowledge of the distribution of bees is lacking.

Figure 2. 

The frequency distribution of countries-per-species records.

The frequency distribution of countries-per-species records.

No. countries No. species % species
1 1 725 62
2–9 898 32
10–19 129 5
≥ 20 24 1

Either the observed country-scale distribution is a true reflection or an artifact of different sampling effort or research intensity between different countries. Bee species richness is known to differ greatly between regions with different topography, climate or vegetation (Michener 1979, White 1983). We found that many of the countries with very low bee species numbers (e.g. Ivory Coast) had diverse climatic regions and vegetation types. Further, neighbouring countries of similar sizes at similar latitudes, which have similar vegetation and climatic conditions (White 1983), had very different numbers of species. For example, Ghana (area 238 535 km2) had 101 species and Ivory Coast (322 463 km2) had 51 species.

Taxonomic research intensity

i) Afrotropical bee taxonomists and regional taxonomic work

The analysis of activity by taxonomists included all described taxa (i.e. counting both senior and junior synonyms as well as subspecies described before 1961).

In the Afrotropical Region there have been only four resident bee taxonomists. Three of them lived in South Africa (H. Brauns, V. Whitehead and C. Eardley) and the fourth (A. Pauly) lived and worked in Madagascar and Gabon and currently resides in Belgium. Other collectors did not study their own material but made it available to taxonomists. H. Brauns, for example, did not describe many species but he did collect for H. Friese who described numerous species from South Africa. Similarly, J. Ogilvie and A. Mackie collected mostly in South Africa for T.D.A. Cockerell. The fact that South Africa has four large bee collections (Table 6) is an indication that collecting effort has been greater in South Africa than in other African countries. There have also been a number of revisionary studies that included only the southern African bee fauna, as tabulated in Eardley et al. (2010). The bee fauna of Madagascar was the focus of several collectors in the past, as indicated by de Saussure (1892) and Pauly et al. (2001). The latter is a revisionary study that makes Madagascar arguably the best studied country in the Afrotropical Region.

In other countries with high numbers of species records, i.e. DRC, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Kenya and Tanzania, there were correspondingly high collecting efforts. In the DRC, collecting was apparently driven through the Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale, Brussels (MRAC). In Zimbabwe, P.A. Sheppard and R. Stevenson, among others, collected extensively. Staff at the National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek (NMNW), undertook numerous collecting expeditions. During the earlier part of the 20th Century, a number of collectors collected extensively in Tanzania and Kenya. Species recorded from the above-mentioned countries, as well as South Africa, account for 49% of the known species-per-country records in the Afrotropical Region. This shows that countries known to have focused collection efforts have higher recorded numbers of bee species than those with less intensive or no known collecting efforts.

Even with the intensive effort to collect and conduct research on the taxonomy of South African bees, a recent study suggested that a number of bee species may remain undiscovered in South Africa. Substantiating this claim, Melin and Colville (2019) noted that two-thirds of South Africa has been under-sampled for bees and about 98% of the country has received little survey effort. These authors expressed concern over the decline in capacity for taxonomic research on insects, both globally and locally, and emphasised the urgent need for exploration to document this ecologically and economically important group.

ii) Authorship of taxonomic descriptions

Table 5 shows the number of species described by each author who described 10 or more species. Cockerell worked mostly on material from South Africa and the DRC, publishing 1772 taxonomic descriptions of bees (38%). Friese wrote the second highest number of taxonomic descriptions (655 species or 14%), and he received much of his material from Brauns’ South African collection. He also received much material from Tanzania. Nine authors, including Cockerell and Friese, each described over 100 species.

The number of bee species described per author (valid species plus species or subspecies now synonymised), for 10 or more taxa per author.

Author Number of taxon descriptions (%)
Cockerell 1772 (38)
Friese 655 (14)
Strand 273 (6)
Pauly 198 (4)
Vachal, Pasteels 190 (4)
Smith 151 (3)
Benoist 145 (3)
Eardley 112 (2)
Blüthgen 79
Cameron 77
Michener 56
Kuhlmann 54
Brauns 51
Brooks, Mavromoustakis 43
Timmermann 40
de Saussure 33
Gerstaecker, Gribodo 30
Lepeletier 29
Meade-Waldo 26
Fabricius 24
Alfken 21
Enderlein, Whitehead 20
Radoszkowski, Magretti 18
Steiner 17
Dathe 16
LeVeque, Schletterer 13
Davies 11
Stadelmann 10
< 10 taxa per author 490 (11)
4654

The total number of primary types per depository, for 10 or more types per depository (Depository codes from The Insect and Spider Collections of the World 2019).

Depository Code No. of types
Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom NHML 1607
Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany ZMHB 919
Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren, Belgium MRAC 325
Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France MNHN 284
American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA AMNH 206
Ditsong National Museum of Natural History TMSA 142
South African National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, South Africa SANC 118
Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa SAMC 113
Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium RBINS 56
Dr A. Pauly’s private collection, Gembloux, Belgium PC 55
Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA SEMC 38
Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland NHMB 30
Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden NHRS 30
National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia NMNW 29
Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa AMGS 29
Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany DEI 24
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA, USA MCZC 22
United States National Museum, Washington, USA USNM 21
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA CAS 21
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden UUZM 14
Station Centrale Zoologie Agricole, Versailles, France INRA 12
National Museum, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe NMBZ 12
Durban Natural Science Museum, Durban, South Africa DMSA 10
University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, United Kingdom OXUM 10
< 10 types per depository 134
Total 4 261

iii) Taxonomic descriptions over time

Whereas taxonomic research is an ongoing process, the description of new species may be used as an indicator of taxonomic activity over time.

Between 1758 and 2018 (260 years) 4654 taxonomic descriptions of Afrotropical bees were published. Three eras can be discerned (Figure 3). During the first era, up to the late 1800s, taxonomic publications largely comprised faunal works containing descriptions of many new species, and few keys and species comparisons were made. The era that followed (from the late 1800s up to 1965) included taxonomic descriptions, species comparisons and keys, but few revisions. In this era the period of maximum productivity was during 1903–1947 when 3 236 species (70%) were described, peaking in 1937 with the description of 319 new species (Figure 3). In only 18 of these years were 50 or more species described per year. This was the period when Cockerell and Friese were most productive. Between them they described 2 407 species and the first major revision (Friese 1909) was produced. The era of revisionary studies began in 1965 with Pasteels’ revision of Megachile (Pasteels 1965) and it continues to the present. A large number of genera have been revised or partly revised since 1965. Some of these studies include part of the region or certain subgenera within a genus (Eardley et al. 2010). This was a period of consolidation when many species names were synonymised and new distribution records were added to the knowledge about existing species.

Figure 3. 

The number of taxon descriptions since 1758.

Bee type material depositories

Taxonomists have to study type material in order to determine the correct name of a species. The locations of type depositories are therefore important from a logistical point of view. We found the type depositories of 4261 bee type specimens or type series (including subspecies) (Table 6 and Figure 4). An additional 393 types or type series have either been lost or their type depositories remain unknown or uncertain, making a total of 4654 types or type series.

Figure 4. 

The numbers of bee types (specimens or series) per depository shown as the percentage of the total number of types. See the first eight rows of Table 6 for the names of depositories.

Cockerell, the most prolific author of new bee species-level taxa, deposited most of his type material in the Natural History Museum, London (NHML), and this museum has the largest holding of Afrotropical bee types (1607 types, Table 6 and Figure 4). Most of Friese’s material is today housed in the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHB) (the remainder is distributed among a number of museums, Rasmussen and Ascher 2008). ZMHB has the second highest number of type specimens (919 types).

Eighty-one per cent of types are housed in Europe, 11% in Africa (9% in South Africa) and 8% in North and Central America.

Standardisation and publication of high-quality biodiversity data

Continuous updating and publication of the CAB will allow the data to be shared with researchers and other users of biodiversity information. The CAB is different from other online sources of information about Afrotropical bees because it is published on the GBIF Data Portal. This also implies that the data are both standardised (Biodiversity Information Standards) and integrated with other distributed data, allowing the user to find more data more easily. Standardisation of data is particularly important (Wieczorek et al. 2012, Walls et al. 2014). This refers to the practice of renaming database fields according to community-debated and agreed lists of standard terms (e.g. Taxon:scientificName) organised into broad classes, e.g. Occurrence, Event or Taxon. These classes and their terms function to organise the concepts and knowledge of biodiversity in a way that is compatible with the latest web technology, specifically that of Linked Open Data (Berners-Lee et al. 2001). This is a way to use the web as ‘a web of linked data’ rather than ‘a web of linked, differently formatted documents’. Central to this technology is the use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), akin to the web URL, to name or identify things or resources (represented by data) on the web. Since URIs identify data values or concepts uniquely (i.e. without ambiguity), the URIs can be thought of as a dictionary of terms (Figure 1) to describe and structure, or organise, the concepts and knowledge used in Biodiversity Science. This technology will enable machines to do much of the drudge-work needed to find, integrate and prepare data for analysis. The technology may even allow machines to interpret data on behalf of experts. It is important to publish high-quality data if such endeavours are to be successful.

In the latest version of the CAB, all the genera of Afrotropical bees have common names. If a genus already had a common name this name was used, but genera that are endemic to the Afrotropical Region were given new names (keeping in mind existing genus names). Common names are important when communicating with citizen scientists or learners.

Conclusions and recommendations

Country-scale distribution

We found evidence strongly suggesting that knowledge of the country-scale distribution of Afrotropical bees is lacking. It is unlikely that similar, neighbouring countries at the same latitude would differ by a factor of two in their numbers of bee species, or that 76% of species would occur in only two countries. Probably, country differences in collecting effort or taxonomic research are responsible for the observed differences in species numbers between countries. Increased taxonomic capacity is therefore essential for a better understanding of the species richness and diversity patterns reflected by Afrotropical bees. The most important group of pollinators are worthy of far greater investment in mobilisation, to the GBIF Data Portal, and preservation, of African data.

Type specimen examination

It is difficult to produce useful taxonomic revisions, including reliable identification keys of Afrotropical bees, without studying type material. The logistics involved in studying types in different museums is influenced by the size of the museums’ holdings and the distances between them. Imaging of types and their labels will help taxonomists studying African bees, but usually it is necessary to examine type specimens. As 82% of types are housed in Europe, travel to this region is essential for revisionary taxonomic research. South Africa (9% of types) and the USA (8% of types) have significant type depositories and also need to be visited by bee taxonomists.

Future taxonomic work

The taxonomic revisions of today are based on comparative morphology. Although morphology is indispensable in understanding and documenting species richness, future taxonomists will have to unravel complexities in species identity to which morphology cannot allude, such as separating sibling species and determining the limits between intra-specific and inter-specific variation. The obvious tools to do this are in molecular biology.

Future system development

A well-designed, standardised biodiversity data management system is essential for scientific research. This will be especially important for the inclusion of additional data, such as associations with other species and biogeography. The biodiversity information system and content of the CAB will continue to be developed, updated and kept abreast of developing biodiversity metadata standards. For example, for validation purposes, the system needs to include literature citations of records of ecological associations, to allow their veracity to be evaluated.

The information system currently relies on a prototype system component, developed using Microsoft Access, to condense the data from the Specify database. This component needs to be developed into a reliable application with a convenient user-interface. Further, the data in the Specify database need to be migrated to a schema that will more precisely reflect the concepts and practices of taxonomy. Ultimately, the reason to digitise any data is to preserve its structure, integrity and safety, so that it may continue to be used.

Acknowledgements

We thank the JRS Biodiversity Foundation for financial support to develop the Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees.

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Appendix 1

The species of Afrotropical bees described in each year since 2010.

Year Species Reference
2010 Chiasmognathus saheliensis Engel, M.S. 2010. A new species of the bee genus Chiasmognathus from southwestern Niger (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Acta Entomologica Muselii Nationalis Pragae 50(1): 273–278
2010 Liotrigona kinzelbachi Koch, H. 2010. Combining morphology and DNA barcoding resolves the taxonomy of Western Malagasy Liotrigona Moure, 1961 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini). African Invertebrates 51(2): 413–421
2010 Patellapis (Chaetalictus) itigiensis Kuhlmann, M. and A. Pauly. 2010. New Afrotropical species of the bee subgenus Patellapis (Chaetalictus) with notes on additional species (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Zootaxa 2674: 33–50
2010 Patellapis (Chaetalictus) kahuziensis Kuhlmann and Pauly 2010
2010 Patellapis (Chaetalictus) knersvlaktei Kuhlmann and Pauly 2010
2010 Patellapis (Chaetalictus) rutshuruensis Kuhlmann and Pauly 2010
2010 Patellapis (Chaetalictus) upembae Kuhlmann and Pauly 2010
2010 Samba (Atrosamba) gessorum Michez, D., C.D. Eardley, M. Kuhlmann and K. Timmermann. 2010. The bee genera Haplomelitta and Samba (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Melittidae): phylogeny, biogeography and host plants. Invertebrate Systematics 24: 327–347
2010 Samba (Metasamba) rubigoinis Michez et al. 2010
2010 Samba (Prosamba) spinosa Michez et al. 2010
2010 Samba (Samba) ascheri Michez et al. 2010
2011 Afroheriades hyalinus Griswold, T. and V.H. Gonzalez. 2011. New species of the Eastern Hemisphere genera Afroheriades and Noteriades (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), with keys to species of the former. Zookeys 159: 65–80
2011 Hoplitis (Anthocopa) conchophila Kuhlmann, M., F.W. Gess, F. Koch and S.K. Gess. 2011. Southern African osmiine bees: taxonomic notes, two new species, a key to Wainia, and biological observations (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Megachilidae). Zootaxa 3108: 1–24
2011 Wainia (Caposmia) gessorum Kuhlmann et al. 2011
2012 Chalicodoma (Pseudomegachile) gibbsi Gonzalez, V.H. and M.S. Engel. 2012. African and southeast Asian Chalicodoma (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): new subgenus, new species, and notes on the composition of Pseudomegachile and Largella. Annales Zoologici 62(4): 599–617
2012 Chalicodoma (Pseudomegachile) strangei Gonzalez and Engel 2012
2012 Dasypoda (Dasypoda) riftensis Michez, D. and A. Pauly. 2012. A new species of the palaearctic genus Dasypoda Latreille 1802 (Hymenoptera: Dasypodaidae) from the Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia. Zootaxa 3181: 63–68
2012 Lasioglossum (Capalictus) hantamense Pauly, A., J. Gibbs and M. Kuhlmann. 2012. Capalictus, a new subgenus of Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 from South Africa, with description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 28: 1–28
2012 Lasioglossum (Capalictus) tigrinum Pauly et al. 2012
2012 Lasioglossum (Capalictus) timmermanni Pauly et al. 2012
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) soutpansbergensis Eardley, C.D. 2012a. A taxonomic revision of the southern African species of dauber bees in the genus Megachile Latreille (Apoidea: Megachilidae). Zootaxa 3460: 1–139
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) gessorum Eardley 2012a
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) richtersveldensis Eardley 2012a
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) sarahae Eardley 2012a
2012 Megachile (Creightonella) serrula Eardley, C.D. 2012b. A taxonomic revision of the southern African species of the subgenus Creightonella Cockerell (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Megachile Latreille). Zootaxa 3159: 1–35
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) gessi Eardley 2012a
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) namibensis Eardley 2012a
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) pseudotaraxis Eardley 2012a
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) taraxis Eardley 2012a
2012 Rediviva steineri Kuhlmann, M. 2012a. Two new species of the South African endemic bee genus Rediviva Friese (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Melittidae). Zootaxa 3517: 71–78
2012 Rediviva whiteheadi Kuhlmann 2012a
2012 Redivivoides capensis Kuhlmann, M. 2012b. Revision of the South African endemic bee genus Redivivoides Michener, 1981 (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Melittidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 34: 1–34
2012 Redivivoides eardleyi Kuhlmann 2012b
2012 Redivivoides kamieskroonensis Kuhlmann 2012b
2012 Redivivoides karooensis Kuhlmann 2012b
2012 Redivivoides namaquaensis Kuhlmann 2012b
2012 Redivivoides variabilis Kuhlmann 2012b
2013 Anthidioma obibense Griswold, T. and V.H. Gonzalez. 2013. A new species of the rare African wool-carder bee genus Anthidioma (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Namibia. African Entomology 21(1): 177–180
2013 Eupetersia avontuurensis Kuhlmann, M. 2013. Eupetersia avontuurensis nov. sp., first record of the bee genus in the South African winter rainfall region (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae). Entomofauna: Zeitschrift für Entomologie 34(14): 185–192
2013 Liotrigona baleensis Pauly, A. and Z.A. Hora. 2013. Apini and Meliponini from Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae: Apinae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 16: 1–35
2013 Liotrigona gabonensis Pauly, A. and E.C.F. Faber Anguilet. 2013. Description de Liotrigona gabonensis sp. nov., et quelques corrections à la synonymie des espèces africaines de mélipones (Hymenoptera : Apoidea : Apinae : Meliponini). Belgian Journal of Entomology 15: 1–13
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) gobabebensis Eardley, C.D. 2013. A taxonomic revision of the southern African leaf-cutter bees, Megachile Latreille sensu stricto and Heriadopsis Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae). Zootaxa 3601: 1–133
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) goegabensis Eardley 2013
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) uluguruensis Pauly, A. and C.D. Eardley. 2013. A Revision of Afrotropical Thrinchostoma de Saussure, 1890 (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 12: 1–76
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) upembae Pauly and Eardley 2013
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) amharicus Dathe, H.H. 2014. Studies on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Hylaeus F. (8) Revision of the Afrotropic subgenus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) Bridwell (Hymenoptera: Anthophila, Colletidae). Zootaxa 3874: 1–84
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) bernhardi Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) camerunensis Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) chimani Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) eardleyi Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) gessianus Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) izikosalis Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) nottoni Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) oromialis Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) pamelae Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) paulyi Dathe 2014
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) venustus Dathe 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Armatriches) baldocki Pauly, A. 2014. Révision des abeilles des graminées en Afrique tropicale (Genre Lipotriches Gerstaecker 1858; Hymenoptera Apoidea Halictidae Nomiinae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 20: 1–393
2014 Lipotriches (Armatriches) voiensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) edenvalensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) guillarmodi Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) kamieskroonensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) karooensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) mamalapiensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) nyikaensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) cassiae Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) garambensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) irwini Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) notabilis ituriensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) rossi Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) saegeri Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) snizeki Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) tenthrediniformis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Patellotriches) salamae Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) acanthospermi Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) brachysoma elinocturna Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) clypeomonstrosa Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) gemmea Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) gongeti Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) hyparrheniae Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) kwiapensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) paludis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) predonta Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) pseudoclavata Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) rozenorum Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) seydeli Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) subaurata Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) eardleyi Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) ewasoensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) harergensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) justiciae Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) karibibensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) maliensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Tegumelissa) gusenleitneri Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Tegumelissa) jadotvillensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Tegumelissa) shimbaensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches (Tegumelissa) usambarae Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches haladai Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches muyengaensis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches nasalis Pauly 2014
2014 Lipotriches upembensis Pauly 2014
2014 Melitta (Afromelitta) richtersveldensis Michez, D., M. Kuhlmann and S. Dellicour. 2014. Validation of some species- and genus-group names in Melitta (Hymenoptera: Melittidae). Bee Biology, Ecology, Evolution, & Systematics 44: 1–8
2014 Melitta (Plesiomelitta) avontuurensis Michez et al. 2014
2014 Scrapter exiguus Kuhlmann, M. 2014. Revision of the ‘euryglossiform’ species of the Afrotropical bee genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 95: 1–69
2014 Scrapter gessorum Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter inexpectatus Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter luteistigma Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter minutissimus Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter minutuloides Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter minutus Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter nanus Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter nigerrimus Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter nigritarsis Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter papkuilsi Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter pygmaeus Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter roggeveldi Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter spinipes Kuhlmann 2014
2014 Scrapter ulrikae Kuhlmann 2014
2015 Hylaeus (Alfkenylaeus) euphorbiae Dathe, H.H. 2015. Studies on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Hylaeus F. (9) Supplement to the taxonomy and distribution of Afrotropical Hylaeus F. species (Hymenoptera: Anthophila, Colletidae). Beiträge zur Entomologie (Berlin) 65(1): 9–26
2015 Hylaeus (Cornylaeus) adamauanis Dathe 2015
2015 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) haladanius Dathe 2015
2015 Hylaeus (Pumilaeus) pumilus Dathe 2015
2015 Plesianthidium (Spinanthidium) namaquaense Eardley, C.D. and T.L. Griswold. 2015. Taxonomic revision of Plesianthidium Cameron (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini), an endemic southern African bee genus. Zootaxa 3973(1): 1–56
2015 Plesianthidium (Spinanthidium) richtersveldense Eardley and Griswold 2015
2015 Samba (Samba) turkana Packer, L. and D. Martins. 2015. A new species of Samba s. str. (Hymenoptera: Melittidae) from the Turkana Basin, Kenya with observations on the function of the metatibial spur in females. Zootaxa 3918(2): 261–272
2016 Fidelia (Fideliopsis) whiteheadi Litman, J.R., C.D. Eardley and M. Kuhlmann. 2016. A new species of Fidelia Friese, 1899 (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), with a key to the species of the genus. European Journal of Taxonomy 174: 1–18
2016 Maynenomia adamaouaensis Pauly, A. and Y.B. Soukontoua. 2016. Deux nouvelles espèces d’abeilles du Massif de l’Adamaoua au Cameroun (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae: Nomiinae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 39: 1–9
2016 Maynenomia tchuenguemi Pauly and Soukontoua 2016
2016 Patellapis (Chaetalictus) mpalaensis Pauly, A. 2016. Description de Patellapis (Chaetalictus) mpalaensis sp. nov. et redescription de P. (C.) virungae Timmermann, 2009 de l’Afrique orientale et centrale (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 36: 1–11
2016 Serapista aspernigra Eardley, C.D. and T. Griswold. 2016. Taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical bee genus Serapista Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachildae: Megachilinae: Anthidiini). Zootaxa 4111: 334–364
2017 Haetosmia ethiopiensis Müller, A. and T. Griswold. 2017. Osmiine bees of the genus Haetosmia (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species. Zootaxa 4358: 351–364
2017 Mermiglossa voicola Ascher, J.S. and M.S. Engel. 2017. A new species of Mermiglossa from Kenya, with comments on the arrangement of Old World Panurginae (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Journal of Melittology 75: 1–11
2017 Pachyanthidium (Trichanthidium) anoplos Eardley, C.D. and T. Griswold. 2017. Taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical species of Pachyanthidium Friese (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Anthidiini). Zootaxa 4237: 401–453
2018 Anthidiellum (Chloranthidiellum) pamae Eardley, C.D. 2018. Taxonomic revision of the sub-Saharan Anthidiellum Cockerell (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini). Zootaxa 4402: 201–250
2018 Anthidiellum (Pycnanthidium) somaliense Eardley 2018
2018 Cyphanthidium gessorum Eardley, C.D. and T. Griswold. 2018. Taxonomic revision of Cyphanthidium Pasteels (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae: Megachilinae: Anthidiini), an endemic Afrotropical bee genus. Zootaxa 4450(1): 26–40
2018 Cyphanthidium whiteheadi Eardley and Griswold 2018
2018 Trachusa namibiensis Kasparek, M. 2018. A new species of Trachusa Panzer, 1804 (Megachilidae: Anthidiini) from southern Africa, with notes on the subgeneric classification and a key to the Afrotropical species. Zootaxa 4399: 329–340

Appendix 2

The species of Afrotropical bees synonymised or removed from synonymy since 2010. References are listed below the table.

Year Senior synonym Junior synonym, citation
2011 Afroheriades (Archeriades) dolichocephalus Archeriades hennigi , 1
2011 Afroheriades (Archeriades) dolichocephalus Heriades reicherti , 1
2011 Capicola capicola Capicola aurescens , 2
2011 Capicola capicola Capicola braunsiana , 2
2011 Capicola capicola Hesperapis obscura , 2
2011 Capicola capicola Hesperapis turneri , 2
2011 Hoplitis (Anthocopa) namaquaensis Hoplitis (Anthocopa) ausica, 2
2011 Wainia (Wainiella) sakaniensis Wainia (Wainiella) albobarbata, 2
2011 Wainia (Wainiella) sakaniensis Wainia (Wainiella) otaviensis, 2
2011 Wainia (Wainiella) sakaniensis Wainia (Wainiella) perpolitus, 2
2012 Andrena africana Notomelitta tropicalis , 3
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) demeter Megachile (Callomegachile) excavata, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) kamerunensis Megachile (Callomegachile) kamerunensis totafusca, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) kamerunensis Megachile (Callomegachile) totafusca, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) rufipennis Megachile (Callomegachile) chrysorrhoea, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) rufiventris Megachile (Callomegachile) aridissima, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) rufiventris Megachile (Callomegachile) coelorhina, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) rufiventris Megachile (Callomegachile) pallipennis, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) rufiventris Megachile (Callomegachile) perniciosa, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) rufiventris Megachile (Callomegachile) phenacosoma, 4
2012 Megachile (Callomegachile) rufiventris Megachile (Callomegachile) rukuruensis, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) karooensis Chalicodoma insolita , 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) karooensis Megachile (Chalicodoma) biexcisa, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) karooensis Megachile (Chalicodoma) fulvosetosa, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) karooensis Megachile (Chalicodoma) insolita, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) karooensis Megachile (Chalicodoma) johannis, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) karooensis Megachile (Chalicodoma) musculus, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) murina Chalicodoma (Chalicodoma) aurulenta, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) murina Chalicodoma (Chalicodoma) bipunctulata, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) murina Megachile (Chalicodoma) acanthura, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) murina Megachile (Chalicodoma) reicherti, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) niveofasciata Chalicodoma (Chalicodoma) lineofasciata, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) niveofasciata Chalicodoma cinctiventris , 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) niveofasciata Megachile (Chalicodoma) albopilosa, 4
2012 Megachile (Chalicodoma) niveofasciata Megachile (Chalicodoma) mesopyrrha, 4
2012 Megachile (Creightonella) angulata Megachile (Creightonella) heptadonta, 5
2012 Megachile (Creightonella) angulata Megachile (Creightonella) hopilitis, 5
2012 Megachile (Creightonella) angulata Megachile (Creightonella) kivuicola, 5
2012 Megachile (Creightonella) cognata Megachile (Creightonella) congruens natalensis, 5
2012 Megachile (Creightonella) dorsata Megachile (Creightonella) ikuthaensis, 5
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) bombiformis Megachile (Gronoceras) bombiformis yapiensis, 4
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) bombiformis Megachile (Gronoceras) yapiensis, 4
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) cincta Megachile (Gronoceras) cincta nigrocincta, 4
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) cincta Megachile (Gronoceras) cincta tricolor, 4
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) cincta Megachile (Gronoceras) combusta, 4
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) cincta Megachile (Gronoceras) nigrocincta, 4
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) cincta Megachile (Gronoceras) tricolor, 4
2012 Megachile (Gronoceras) felina Gronoceras cerberus optima , 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) cradockensis Megachile (Pseudomegachile) empeyi, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) crocutella, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) decemsignata, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) diversiventris, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) junodi, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) mucoreiventris, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) nubilosa, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) pachingeri, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) rhodotrichura, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) solitaria, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) torridus, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) fervida Megachile (Pseudomegachile) torula, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) mossambica Megachile (Pseudomegachile) armatipes, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) mossambica Megachile (Pseudomegachile) cyanura, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) mossambica Megachile (Pseudomegachile) laminata, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) mossambica Megachile (Pseudomegachile) obscuribasis, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) mossambica Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ritchiei, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) nasicornis Megachile (Pseudomegachile) bullata, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) schulthessi Megachile (Pseudomegachile) congruens, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) schulthessi Megachile (Pseudomegachile) congruens flaviventris, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) schulthessi Megachile (Pseudomegachile) flexa, 4
2012 Megachile (Pseudomegachile) schulthessi Megachile (Pseudomegachile) marginipennis, 4
2013 Hypotrigona squamuligera Hypotrigona penna , 6
2013 Megachile (Amegachile) fimbriata Megachile (Amegachile) vulpecula, 7
2013 Megachile (Amegachile) nasalis Megachile (Amegachile) ventrifasciata, 7
2013 Megachile (Amegachile) nasalis Megachile (Amegachile) volkmanni, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) barbata Megachile (Eutricharaea) coelostoma, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) barbata Megachile (Eutricharaea) discretula, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) barbata Megachile (Eutricharaea) nasutula, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) barbata Megachile (Eutricharaea) nitidicauda, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) basalis Megachile (Eutricharaea) latimetatarsis, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) basalis Megachile (Eutricharaea) rozenii, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) basalis Megachile (Eutricharaea) waterbergensis, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) bucephala Megachile (Eutricharaea) semifulva, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) cyanescens Megachile (Eutricharaea) okanjandica, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) cyanescens Megachile (Eutricharaea) vittatula, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) eurymera Megachile (Eutricharaea) rhodoleucura, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) eurymera Megachile (Eutricharaea) tarsignata, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) familiaris Megachile (Eutricharaea) luteola, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) familiaris Megachile (Eutricharaea) stellensis, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) muansae Megachile (Eutricharaea) leucospilura, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) salsburyana Megachile (Eutricharaea) seclusa, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) acallognatha, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) concinna, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) marusa, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) microxanthops, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) robertiana, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) semivenusta, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) umbiloensis, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Eutricharaea) venustella, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Paracella) gratiosa, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Megachile (Paracella) sarna, 7
2013 Megachile (Eutricharaea) wahlbergi Megachile (Eutricharaea) pondonis, 7
2013 Megachile (Heriadopsis) whiteana Megachile (Heriadopsis) tantilla, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) albofilosa, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) candidicauda, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) candidigena, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) flavibasis, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) heterotricha, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) meesi, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) neli, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) rubeola, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Megachile (Paracella) spinarum, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) curtula Megachile (Paracella) benitocola, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) curtula Megachile (Paracella) bicingulata, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) curtula Megachile (Paracella) granulicauda, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) edwardsi Megachile (Paracella) spatulicornis, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile (Paracella) clarescens, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile (Paracella) laticeps, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile (Paracella) obesa, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile (Paracella) ovatomaculata, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile (Paracella) rudihirta, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile (Paracella) stellarum, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile (Paracella) thomasseti, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile clarescens , 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Megachile thomasseti clarescens , 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) pilosella Megachile (Paracella) boswendica, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) pilosella Megachile (Paracella) rubrociliata, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) pilosella Megachile (Paracella) rufisetosa, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) semierma Megachile (Paracella) lydenburgiana, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) semierma Megachile (Paracella) pretoriaensis, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) semierma Megachile (Paracella) pycnocephala, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) ungulata Megachile (Paracella) apiformis, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) ungulata Megachile (Paracella) rufibasis, 7
2013 Megachile (Paracella) ungulata Megachile (Paracella) umtaliensis, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) asarna, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) capiticola, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) chromatica, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) chrysognatha, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) ekuivella, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) flammicauda, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) gratiosella, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) haematognatha, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) heteroscopa, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) krebsiana, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) mackieae, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) masaiella, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) melanura, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) natalica, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) rhodesica, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) rufosuffusa, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) rufulina, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) semiflava, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) subcordata, 7
2013 Megachile cordata Megachile (Paracella) tardula, 7
2013 Thrinchostoma (Diagonozus) lettowvorbecki Thrinchostoma (Diagonozus) guineense, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma) emini Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) telekii, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma) emini Thrinchostoma undulatum , 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma) petersi Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) wissmanni, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma) petersi Thrinchostoma rubrocinctum , 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma) torridum Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma) wellmanni, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma) torridum Thrinchostoma malelanum , 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) productum Halictus (Thrinchostoma) bibundicus, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) productum Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) bequaerti, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) productum Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) bequaerti ochropus, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) productum Thrinchostoma lualiensis , 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) productum Thrinchostoma tessmanni , 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) productum Thrinchostoma vachali , 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) sjoestedti Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) mwangai, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) sjoestedti Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) sjoestedti rufescens, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) sjoestedti Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) ugandae, 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) sjoestedti Thrinchostoma millari , 8
2013 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma) sjoestedti Thrinchostoma umtaliense , 8
2014 Lipotriches (Armatriches) kondeana Nomia angulifera apicata , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) colona Nomia melanosticta , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) colona Nomia viridarii , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Andrena matha , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia basutorum , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia burorum , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia dalyana , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia dominarum , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia ferripennis , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia matha breviceps , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia phenacopoda , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Cubitriches) cubitalis Nomia rugicollis , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Lipotriches) oberthurella Nomia atopozona , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Patellotriches) tetraloniformis Nomia fortis , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) brachysoma Nomia ligata , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) cinerascens Nomia brunnipes , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) cinerascens Rhopalomelissa brunnipes , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Rhopalomelissa) clavata Nomia andrei , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) arnoldi Nomia opacibasis , 9
2014 Lipotriches (Stellotriches) arnoldi Nomia opacibasis sublucens , 9
2014 Lipotriches colona Rhopalomelissa melanosticta , 9
2014 Lipotriches colona Rhopalomelissa viridarii , 9
2014 Lipotriches fulvipes Rhopalomelissa alivalensis , 9
2014 Lipotriches fulvipes Rhopalomelissa gastrodonta , 9
2014 Lipotriches fulvipes Nomia alivalensis , 9
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) curvicarinatus Prosopis flaviscutum , 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) curvicarinatus Hylaeus graaffi , 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) dregei Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) microstictus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) gabonicus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) bequaertianus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) krebsianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) immarginatus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) krebsianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) abjunctus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) lightfooti Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) absonulus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) lightfooti Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) reditus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) lineaticeps Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) subreditus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) perater Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) extensicornis, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) promontorii Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) rhodognathus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) robertianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) atriceps, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) robertianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) major, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) robertianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) dominae, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) robertianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) punctiferus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) robertianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) sanctus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) robertianus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) sublucens, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) robertianus Hylaeus multifarius , 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) rugipunctus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) simulans, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) Prosopis tenuis , 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) tenuis Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) simplior, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) tenuis Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) perdensus, 14
2014 Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) xanthostoma Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) kasindensis, 14
2015 Removed from synonymy Plesianthidium (Spinanthidium) calvini, 10
2015 Removed from synonymy. Records in Eardley and Urban (2010) were documented before P. volkmanni and P. rufocaudatum were recognized as separate. They are therefore unreliable. Plesianthidium (Spinanthidiellum) rufocaudatum, 10
2016 Removed from synonymy Serapista friesei , 11
2016 Removed from synonymy Serapista pernigra , 11
2017 Pachyanthidium (Pachyanthidium) paulinieri Pachyanthidium (Pachyanthidium) cordatum salamense, 12
2018 Anthidium minutulum flavescens Anthidiellum (Chloranthidiellum) eritrinum, 13
2018 Anthidiellum (Chloranthidiellum) flavescens nigrescens Anthidiellum (Chloranthidiellum) eritrinum, 13
2018 Anthidiellum (Pycnanthidiellum) transversale Anthidiellum (Chloranthidiellum) eritrinum, 13
2018 Anthidiellum hessei Anthidiellum (Chloranthidiellum) eritrinum, 13
2018 Anthidium auriscopatum Anthidiellum (Pycnanthidium) absonulum, 13
2018 Dianthidium melanocephalum Anthidiellum (Pycnanthidium) apicatum, 13
2018 Dianthidium spilotum Anthidiellum (Pycnanthidium) apicatum, 13

References (Appendix 2)

[1] Griswold, T. and V.H. Gonzalez. 2011. New species of the Eastern Hemisphere genera Afroheriades and Noteriades (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), with keys to species of the former. Zookeys 159: 65–80.

[2] Kuhlmann, M., F.W. Gess, F. Koch and S.K. Gess. 2011. Southern African osmiine bees: taxonomic notes, two new species, a key to Wainia, and biological observations (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Megachilidae). Zootaxa 3108: 1–24.

[3] Kuhlmann, M. 2012. Two new species of the South African endemic bee genus Rediviva Friese (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Melittidae). Zootaxa 3517: 71–78.

[4] Eardley, C.D. 2012. A taxonomic revision of the southern African species of dauber bees in the genus Megachile Latreille (Apoidea: Megachilidae). Zootaxa 3460: 1–139.

[5] Eardley, C.D. 2012. A taxonomic revision of the southern African species of the subgenus Creightonella Cockerell (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Megachile Latreille). Zootaxa 3159: 1–35.

[6] Pauly, A. and E.C.F. Faber Anguilet. 2013. Description de Liotrigona gabonensis sp. nov., et quelques corrections à la synonymie des espèces africaines de mélipones (Hymenoptera : Apoidea : Apinae : Meliponini). Belgian Journal of Entomology 15: 1–13.

[7] Eardley, C.D. 2013. A taxonomic revision of the southern African leaf-cutter bees, Megachile Latreille sensu stricto and Heriadopsis Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae). Zootaxa 3601: 1–133.

[8] Pauly, A. and C.D. Eardley. 2013. A Revision of Afrotropical Thrinchostoma de Saussure, 1890 (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 12: 1–76.

[9] Pauly, A. 2014. Révision des abeilles des graminées en Afrique tropicale (Genre Lipotriches Gerstaecker 1858; Hymenoptera Apoidea Halictidae Nomiinae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 20: 1–393.

[10] Eardley, C.D. and T.L. Griswold. 2015. Taxonomic revision of Plesianthidium Cameron (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini), an endemic southern African bee genus. Zootaxa 3973(1): 1–56.

[11] Eardley, C.D. and T. Griswold. 2016. Taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical bee genus Serapista Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachildae: Megachilinae: Anthidiini). Zootaxa 4111: 334–364.

[12] Eardley, C.D. and T. Griswold. 2017. Taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical species of Pachyanthidium Friese (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Anthidiini). Zootaxa 4237: 401–453.

[13] Eardley, C.D. 2018. Taxonomic revision of the sub-Saharan Anthidiellum Cockerell (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini). Zootaxa 4402: 201–250.

[14] Dathe, H.H. 2014. Studies on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Hylaeus F. (8) Revision of the Afrotropic subgenus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) Bridwell (Hymenoptera: Anthophila, Colletidae). Zootaxa 3874: 1–84.

Appendix 3

New country records of species (i.e. not in the CAB) represented by specimen records downloaded from the GBIF Data Portal.

Country Species
Angola Amegilla albocaudata, Amegilla langi, Amegilla nubica, Amegilla obscuriceps, Amegilla spilostoma, Amegilla velutina, Anthidiellum polyochrum, Anthophora rufolanata, Braunsapis albipennis, Braunsapis otavica, Ceratina labrosa, Melitturga capensis, Serapista denticulata, Tetralonia cinctula, Tetralonia penicillata, Thyreus calceatus
Benin Sphecodes hagensi
Botswana Afranthidium braunsi, Allodapula variegata, Anthophora armata, Braunsapis fuscinervis, Ceratina lunata, Ceratina nasalis, Ceratina nyassensis, Coelioxys analis, Coelioxys natalensis, Coelioxys rufispina, Compsomelissa zaxantha, Liotrigona bottegoi, Lipotriches vulpina, Meliponula beccarii, Meliponula bocandei, Meliponula ferruginea, Pseudapis anthidioides
Burkina Faso Amegilla atrocincta, Amegilla calens, Xylocopa watmoughi
Burundi Afranthidium abdominale, Amegilla acraensis, Amegilla calens, Amegilla nigritarsis, Pseudoanthidium truncatum, Serapista denticulata, Xylocopa caffra, Xylocopa olivacea
Cameroon Lipotriches orientalis, Pseudapis aliceae, Seladonia africana, Seladonia foana, Seladonia jucunda, Tetralonia fraterna
Central African Republic Amegilla acraensis, Amegilla atrocincta, Hypotrigona gribodoi, Meliponula bocandei
Chad Amegilla nubica, Xylocopa inconstans
Democratic Republic of Congo Cyphanthidium sheppardi, Tetralonia mesotes
Eritrea Amegilla eritrina, Anthophora vestita
Ethiopia Anthophora vestita
Gabon Allodape mea, Amegilla circulata, Amegilla kaimosica, Braunsapis calidula, Ceratina malindiae, Ceratina nasalis, Ceratina nyassensis, Ceratina pacis, Ceratina tanganyicensis, Ceratina viridis, Ceylalictus muiri, Hypotrigona araujoi, Liotrigona bottegoi, Megachile discolor, Megachile ianthoptera
Ghana Amegilla atrocincta, Amegilla calens, Amegilla kaimosica, Amegilla vivida, Ceratina lineola, Ceratina nasalis, Meliponula beccarii, Nomia rufitarsis, Tetralonia nigropilosa, Xylocopa albiceps, Xylocopa olivacea
Ivory Coast Amegilla nila, Ctenoplectra bequaerti, Xylocopa caffra
Kenya Amegilla atrocincta, Amegilla bechuanensis, Amegilla caelestina, Amegilla cymatilis, Amegilla grandiceps, Amegilla kuleni, Amegilla penicula, Amegilla rapida, Amegilla vivida, Ammobates auster, Anthophora xanthostoma, Braunsapis langenburgensis, Braunsapis lyrata, Braunsapis nautica, Braunsapis neavei, Cellariella somalica, Ceratina nasalis, Ceratina nyassensis, Ceratina speculifrons, Ctenoplectra polita, Haetosmia ethiopiensis, Hylaeus fumatus, Hypotrigona araujoi, Hypotrigona ruspolii, Lipotriches hirsutula, Lipotriches leucomelanura, Lipotriches neglecta, Lipotriches patellifera, Megachile ianthoptera, Meliponula ferruginea, Nomia vassei, Pachymelus festivus, Pasites appletoni, Pasites jenseni, Pseudapis anthidioides, Pseudapis patellata, Seladonia africana, Tetralonia nigropilosa, Tetraloniella abessinica, Tetraloniella abrochia, Tetraloniella apicalis, Tetraloniella ataxia, Tetraloniella aurantiflava, Tetraloniella elsei, Tetraloniella katangensis, Tetraloniella ottiliensis, Thyreus bouyssoui, Thyreus interruptus, Xylocopa lugubris
Lesotho Afromelecta fulvohirta, Amegilla spilostoma, Colletes malleatus, Epeolus natalensis, Megachile cordata, Megachile curtula, Megachile venusta, Pseudoanthidium tertium
Liberia Amegilla acraensis, Amegilla albocaudata, Amegilla nubica, Meliponula beccarii
Malawi Amegilla albocaudata, Amegilla aspergina, Amegilla caelestina, Amegilla calens, Amegilla capensis, Amegilla cymatilis, Amegilla kaimosica, Amegilla mimadvena, Amegilla nila, Amegilla nubica, Amegilla penicula, Anthophora tetradonta, Braunsapis langenburgensis, Braunsapis simplicipes, Ceratina nasalis, Euaspis erythros, Hypotrigona araujoi, Hypotrigona gribodoi, Hypotrigona ruspolii, Lipotriches tridentata, Megachile rufiventris, Meliponula ferruginea, Patellapis minima, Seladonia foana, Seladonia jucunda, Tetraloniella abessinica, Tetraloniella ogilviae, Thyreus axillaris, Xylocopa flavicollis, Xylocopa lugubris, Xylocopa mixta
Mauritius Thyreus calceatus
Mozambique Amegilla caelestina, Anthophora armata, Ceratina opaca, Hypotrigona araujoi, Hypotrigona gribodoi, Hypotrigona ruspolii, Megachile alternans, Megachile bituberculata, Meliponula beccarii, Meliponula ferruginea, Thrinchostoma kandti
Namibia Afranthidium biangulatum, Afranthidium hamaticauda, Afranthidium haplogastrum, Afranthidium repetitum, Amegilla calens, Amegilla nigritarsis, Anthidium bechuanalandicum, Anthophora xanthostoma, Braunsapis fuscinervis, Braunsapis vitrea, Capicola rhodostoma, Capicola rufiventris, Ceratina armata, Ceratina nasalis, Coelioxys caeruleipennis, Colletes zuluensis, Evylaeus mirifrons, Heriades wellmani, Hylaeus braunsi, Hypotrigona gribodoi, Lipotriches patellifera, Lipotriches vulpina, Megachile atopognatha, Megachile atripes, Megachile frontalis, Megachile malangensis, Megachile maxillosa, Megachile meadewaldoi, Megachile semierma, Megachile ungulata, Melitturga barbarae, Melitturga capensis, Melitturga penrithorum, Pachymelus peringueyi, Patellapis chubbi, Pseudapis flavicarpa, Pseudoheriades moricei
Nigeria Afranthidium abdominale, Euaspis erythros, Hypotrigona araujoi, Meliponula cameroonensis, Pseudapis aliceae, Tetralonia fraterna, Tetralonia obscuriceps
Senegal Afranthidium abdominale, Amegilla acraensis, Thyreus pretextus
Seychelles Ceratina electron
Somalia Haetosmia ethiopiensis